US History Chapter 10 ppt

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CHAPTER 10
Americans sought to increase the size of their nation

wanted to establish colonies overseas.
– the policy in which stronger nations extend their
economic, political, or military control over weaker
territories.
Imperialism was already a trend around the world.
 Japan
formed a
strong central
govt. and joined in
the competition
for China in the
1890’s.
1.
Desire for military strength
2.
Thirst for new markets
3.
Belief in cultural superiority
 Many
Americans thought they were superior
to other peoples because they were AngloSaxon.

felt they should inferior peoples of Christianity
and “civilization”
oformer
Secretary of State
for Lincoln and Johnson.
1867 – arranged for the US
to buy Alaska from the
Russians for $7.2 million.
Some people thought it was
silly
Alaska was often
called
“Seward’s Folly”
or
“Seward’s
Icebox”
1959 – Alaska became a state
•Cost was about 2 cents per acre
•Land was rich in timber,
minerals, and oil. Oil was not
discovered until after the
purchase.
1867- The US took over the Midway Islands


Lie in the pacific Ocean abt. 1300 miles north
of Hawaii.
Uninhabited
Mid 1900’s
¾ of the island’s wealth came from
American owned sugar plantations.
- laborers for plantations were imported
from Japan, Portugal, and China.
1900 – foreigners and immigrant
laborers outnumbered Hawaiians about
3 to 1.
Hawaiian grown sugar was not charged
a tariff by the US until the McKinley
Tariff of 1890.
American planters wanted the US to
annex the islands to avoid the tax.
 1887
– the United
States persuaded
Hawaii to allow
them to build a
naval base there.

Pearl Harbor – the
kingdom’s best port

Became a refueling
station for American
ships

1887 – King Kalakua was forced by white business
owners to amend the Hawaiian constitution.

Amendment limited voting rights to wealthy
landowners only.

King Kalakua died and his sister Queen
Liliuoklani came to power.


She had only
Hawaiians in mind for
her agenda and
wanted to revise the
constitution leaving
the white
businessmen out.
Ambassador John L. Stevens
organized a revolution.
Queen Liliukalani
REVOLUTION

was aided by marines

The queen was
overthrown and a
government was set
up headed by Sanford
B. Dole
 President
Cleveland directed that the queen
be restored to her throne.


Dole refused to refused to surrender
Cleveland recognized the Republic of Hawaii

Would not consider annexation unless a majority of
Hawaiians favored it.

1897 – McKinley became president

August 12, 1898, Congress proclaimed Hawaii an American
territory.

Hawaiians were never given the chance to vote

1959 – Hawaii became the 50th state of the United
States.
Section 3
 When
Puerto Rico became part of the U.S.
Puerto Ricans feared that the U.S. would not
give them the same freedom of self-rule they
had under Spanish rule.
-Puerto Rican statesman
and publisher
1900-1916 – lived primarily
in the U.S. and worked for
Puerto Rico’s
independence.
Spoke to Congress May 5,
1916
He died Nov. 1916
Independence to Puerto
Ricans was granted 3
months later.
 Not
all Puerto Ricans wanted independence.
 Some
wanted statehood.
 Military
Rule
 During the S/A War, U.S. forces, under
direction of General Nelson A. Miles,
occupied the island.
 Miles told Puerto Ricans that troops were
there for protection.
 The
U.S. would control Puerto Rico until
Congress decided otherwise.
 Puerto
Rico was strategically important to
the U.S.


For maintaining a U.S. presence in the Caribbean
For protecting a U.S. canal that leaders wanted
to build in the future.
 Foraker
Act – ended military rule in PR and
set up a civil govt.

The act gave the president of the U.S. power to
appoint members of Puerto Rico’s governor and
members of its upper house of legislature.

Puerto Ricans could only appoint the lower house of
legislature.
 Insular
Cases – Congress ruled that the
Constitution did not apply to people in
acquired territories.

Congress retained the right to extend citizenship

Granted that right to Puerto Ricans in 1917.
 When
the U.S. declared war on Spain in
1898, it recognized Cuba’s independence.
Teller Amendment –

Stated that the U.S. had no intention of taking
over any part of Cuba.
Treaty of Paris – ended the war
 Guaranteed Cuba’s independence
 Cuba
was occupied by American soldiers
when the war ended.
 The
same officials who served Spain
remained in office.

Cuban’s who protested this policy were
imprisoned or exiled.

Provided food and clothing for families

Helped farmers put land back into cultivation

Organized elementary schools.

Helped eliminate yellow fever through
improvement of sanitation and medical research.
 1900
– Cuba wrote its own constitution for
independence, leaving out the relationship
between the U.S. and Cuba.
 1901
– U.S. demanded that several provisions
be added to the constitution.
 These
provisions were known as the Platt
Amendment.
 Provisions
were as follows:

Cuba could not make treaties that might limit its
independence or permit a foreign power to
control any part of its territory.

The U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Cuba

Cuba was not to go into debt that its government
could not repay

The U.S. could buy or lease land on the island for
naval stations and refueling stations.
 The
U.S. made it clear that troops would not
withdraw from Cuba until the Platt
Amendment was approved.

Cubans marched in protest against the U.S.

1903 – the Platt Amendment became part of the
treaty between the two nations.


Remained in effect for 31 years.
Cuba became a U.S. protectorate - a country whose
affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.
 The
most important reason for the U.S. to
maintain a strong political presence in Cuba
was to protect American businesses that
invested in the island’s:




Sugar
Tobacco
Mining industries
Railroads and public utilities
 Many
business people were convinced that
annexing and imposing colonial rule on new
territories was necessary to protect American
interests.
 Some
were concerned about colonial
entanglements.
 Andrew
Carnegie argued against the taking of
nations as colonies.
 Treaty
of Paris – Filipinos were outraged by
the annexation of the Philippines by America.
 Emilio



Aguinaldo
Rebel leader
believed that the U.S. had promised
independence.
vowed to fight for freedom once they realized
the terms of the treaty.
 2/1899
- the Filipinos rose in revolt with
Aguinaldo as their leader.
 U.S. imposed authority on them.

Forced Filipinos to live in designated zones.



Poor sanitation, disease, and starvation killed
thousands.
Just like Spain did with Cuba
Americans looked on Filipinos as inferior
 Many of the troops sent to the Philippines were
African Americans – 70,000.
 Many deserted to the Filipino side – did not want
racial prejudice.
 Took
3 years to put down the rebellion
 About
20,000 of them died fighting for
independence.
 4000
Americans died
 Cost
of war $400 million
 After
the war the U.S. set up a govt. similar
to the one Puerto Rico had.
 Philippines
became an independent republic
on July 4, 1946.
 U.S.
saw the Philippines as a gateway to the
rest of Asia.
 China
was seen as a vast potential market for
American products.
 Opportunity
for railroad construction
 China
had been weakened by war and foreign
intervention.
 Known
as the “sick man of Asia”
 France,
Germany, Britain, Japan, and Russia
had established settlements along the coast.
 1899
- U.S.
Secretary of State
John Hay issued a
series of policy
statements called
the Open Door
notes.
 The
notes were letters addressed to the
leaders of imperialist nations proposing that
the nations share their trading rights with
the United States, creating an open door.
 No
nation would have a monopoly on trade
with any part of China.
 Europeans
dominated much of China’s large
cities.
 Some

Chinese formed secret societies
Boxers – most famous of these groups
 Killed
hundreds of missionaries and other
foreigners.

Chinese converts to Christianity
 August
1900 – troops from Britain, France,
Germany, and Japan joined 2,500 American
forces and marched on the Chinese capital.
2
months – they put down the rebellion
 2nd
Series of Open Door notes was issued
announcing that the U.S. would safeguard for
the world the equal and impartial trade with
all parts of the Chinese empire.
 Paved
the way for greater American
influence in America.
 Reflected



3 American beliefs
Growth of economy depended on exports
Felt U.S. had to intervene abroad to keep foreign
markets open.
Feared the closing of an area to American
products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S.
survival.

under McKinley the U.S. had gained an
empire.
 Anti-Imperial


League sprang into being
People against imperialism
Grover Cleveland, Jane Addams, Mark Twain
 Teddy
Roosevelt and the World


Roosevelt was unwilling to allow the imperial
powers of Europe to control the world’s political
and economic destiny.

In 1905, Roosevelt mediated a settlement in a
war between Russia and Japan.
 1904
– Tsar Nicholas II of Russia declared war
on Japan.
 Russia
and Japan were competing for control
of Korea.


Japanese – attack on the Russian Pacific fleet
Japan destroyed a second fleet.

Won a series of land battles securing Korea and
Manchuria.
 Japan
began to run out of men and money
 They
approached Roosevelt in secret and
asked him to mediate peace negotiations.
 1905
– 1st meeting – Portsmouth, NH
 They negotiated and the Treaty of
Portsmouth won the Nobel Peace Prize for
Roosevelt in 1906
Many Americans felt there should be a canal
cutting through Central America.
- would reduce travel time for military
and commercial ships.
- United States and Britain agreed to share
the rights to the canal.
1901 – Hay-Pauncefote Treaty –
- Britain gave the U.S. exclusive rights to
build and control a canal through Central
America.

2 possible routes were identified


1 through Nicaragua – crossed a lake
1 through Panama – shorter, but filled with
mountains and swaps.

A French company had attempted to build a
canal through Panama and after 10 years they
gave up.

It sent an agent, Phillippe Bunau-Varilla to the
U.S. to convince them to buy the claim.
 The
U.S. decided on the Panama route and
purchased the area for $40 million.
 The
U.S. had to get permission from
Columbia which ruled Panama at that time.
 Negotiations
broke down and Bunau-Varilla
helped organized a rebellion against
Columbia.
 11/3/03
– nearly a dozen U.S. warships were
present as Panama declared its
independence from Columbia.
 15
days later, the U.S. and Panama signed a
treaty in which the U.S. agreed to pay
Panama $10 million plus an annual rent of
$250,000 for an area of land across Panama
Called the Canal Zone.
Payments were to begin in 1913.
 construction
of the Canal ranks as one of the
world’s greatest engineering feats.
 Problems

– diseases – malaria, yellow fever
Soft volcanic soil – difficult to work with
 Work
began in 1904
 Employed
43,400 workers
 Many
workers came from Italy and Spain, but
¾ were blacks from the British West Indies.
 More
than 5,600 workers on the canal died
from accidents or disease.
 Total
cost to the United States was about
$380 million.
 Completed
on 8/15/1914
 U.S.
–Latin American relations were damaged
because the U.S. supported the rebellion of
Panama.
 Roosevelt
was determined to make the U.S. a
dominate power in the Caribbean and
Central America.
 He
reminded European powers of the Monroe
doctrine which demanded that European
countries stay out of the affairs of Latin
America.
 Roosevelt
Corollary – added to the Monroe
Doctrine

Warned that disorder in Latin America would
force the States to become an International
police power.

Also said that the U.S. would use force to protect
economic interests in Latin America.

1911 – rebellion broke out in Nicaragua

Left the nation in bankruptcy
Taft arranged for American bankers to loan
Nicaragua enough money to pay its debts.

Bankers could collect Nicaragua’s custom duties

Bankers also gained control of the Nicaraguans
state owned railroad and its national bank.

 Nicaraguans
revolted and marines were sent
to Nicaragua to put down the rebellion.
 Some
 Dollar
marines stayed there until 1933.
diplomacy – policy of U.S. to
guarantee loans made to foreign countries by
American businesspeople.
 Said
the U.S. had the right to deny
recognition to any Latin American
government it viewed as oppressive.
 Prior
to this the U.S. recognized any
government that controlled a nation,
regardless of how it came to power.
 Porfirio



Diaz –
Military dictator
Ruled Mexico for about 30 years
Friend of the U.S.
 1911
– Mexican peasants and workers led by
Francisco Madero overthrew Diaz.

Madero promised reforms

Unable to fix the gap and conflicts between classes
2
years later Gen. Victoriano Huerta took
over the government.


Madero was murdered
Wilson refused to recognize “a government of
butchers”
 1914
– small group of American sailors were
arrested.
 They
were quickly released and Mexico
apologized, but Wilson used the opportunity
to intervene in Mexico.
 He
ordered U.S. marines to occupy Veracruz,
an important Mexican port.
 18
Americans and 200 Mexicans died during
the invasion.
 Argentina,
Brazil, and Chile stepped in to
mediate the conflict.





Proposed that Huerta step down
U.S. withdraw without paying for damages.
Mexico rejected the plan
U.S. refused to recognize Huerta
Huerta regime eventually fell apart
 Venustiano
Carranza
Became president in
1915
 U.S. recognized his
government and
withdrew troops.

 Mexican
 Opposed
rebel
Carranza
 Dedicated
reform.
to land
 Francisco
“Pancho”
Villa –
 Mexican rebel
 Resented rule of
Huerta
 Villa threatened
reprisals against the
U.S.
 Took Americans off
a mining train and
shot them.
 Wilson
ordered Gen. John J. Pershing and
15,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Villa
dead or alive.
 Villa
still ran.
 Wilson called out 150,000 National
Guardsmen and stationed them along the
Mexican border.
 Mexicans
grew angry over the U.S. invasion
of their land.
 1916
U.S. troops clashed with Carranza’s
army
 Carranza
demanded U.S. withdrawal and
Wilson refused.
 Both
sides backed down.
 Wilson
ordered troops home.
 Mexico
adopted a constitution that gave the
govt. control of the nation’s oil and mineral
resources.

Placed strict regulations on foreign invasions

Carranza ruled oppressively until 1920.
 Came
to power after Carranza
 Marked
the end of civil war and beginning of
Mexican reform.
 Americans
believed in the superiority of freeenterprise democracy.
 The
American govt. attempted to extend its
reach of this economic and political system,
even through armed intervention.
 U.S.
expanded its access to foreign markets
in order to ensure growth of domestic
economy.
 U.S.
built a modern navy to protect its
interest abroad
 U.S.
exercised its international police power
to ensure dominance in Latin America.

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