Persuasive Speech - uhl4012publicspeaking

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Persuasive Speech
Persuasion
 The process of creating, reinforcing, or
changing people's beliefs or actions.
 It involves directing, guiding, or appealing to the
thinking, logic or emotions of an individual
or an audience.
 Persuasive speech in public speaking is the art of
using words to influence an audience.
(Refer MLK speech)
The Goal is …
 to get the audience to take action with regard to a
particular issue. That action may be as simple as
changing their way of thinking on a topic or as complicated
as following an action plan.
 to help the listeners to accept the idea, attitude, or
action being presented by the speaker. It is
accomplished by the use of argumentation, rationalization,
symbolism, and presenting supportive information.
 The Goal of Persuasive Speech is to Get Your MWR.
Degrees of Persuasion
Strongly
Opposed
Moderately
Opposed
Slightly
Opposed
Neutral
Slightly
in Favor
Moderately
in Favor
Strongly
in Favor
Persuasion involves any movement by a listener from
left to right
Contrast between Informative & Persuasive
1. Persuasive speaking urges us to choose from among
options, informative speaking reveals and clarifies options.
2. Persuasive speaking asks the audience for more
commitment than does informative speaking.
3. The ethical obligations for persuasive speakers are even
greater than for informative speakers.
4. The Persuasive speaker is a leader; the informative speaker
is a teacher.
5. Persuasive speaking more often involves emotional appeals
that are out of place in speeches to inform.
How to Choose Persuasive Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Pick something you feel strongly abt. Brainstorm. Music –
why rap music is not as violent as people may think.
Pick something controversial – for or against campus-wide
smoking ban.
Pick a current event. Read a newspaper. Social issue –
abandoned newborn babies.
Pick a campus or local issue – campus-wide ban on cars.
Pick an issue of interest to the audience – cell phones, music
downloads, facebook, tuition hikes
Avoid tired topics – why you should quit smoking, why you
should recycle, why you should donate blood
Be cautious with issues that some audience members might
find offensive – race issue
Think of a topic (10 mins)
e.g Broad topic: Social problem –
Abandoned newborn babies
Inform
Persuasive Speech Topics
1. Arranged marriage leads to a lasting relationship.
2. Are beauty contests harmful?
3. Sex education should/should not be introduced in schools.
4. Video games do/do not promote violence.
5. Exams give no real indication of ability.
6. Boarding school is/is not beneficial to children.
7. National service should/should not be made compulsory.
8. Gangsterism is greatly influenced by violence shown on
television.
9. Genetically modified (GM) foods should /should not be
introduced.
10.Should mothers stay home and raise children?
11. Is sports really good for us?
12.University students should be actively involved in
charity/volunteer work.
Persuade
Entertain
Write out your topic in a statement form (5 mins)
e.g Baby hatches should be set up nationwide to
curb problem of abandoned babies.
Specific Purpose Statement
A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a
speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
Examples of SP statements
1. To convince my audience there should be tougher
enforcement laws to protect the victims of domestic abuse.
2. To convince my audience that drinking tea benefits our
body.
3. To persuade my audience to register in a public speaking
course.
4. To persuade my audience that BK burgers contain less fat
than McD burgers.
5. To convince my audience that violence on television is a
major cause of violent behavior in society.
6. To persuade my audience that university students should
be actively involved in charity/volunteer work.
Central Idea/Thesis Statement
A one-sentence statement that sums up or
encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.
Usually found in the introduction of your sentence.
Persuasive Speech Topics
How to go from Informative Speech Topic to
Persuasive Speech Topic?
Broad: Social problem – Abandoned newborn babies
Informative: To inform my audience the reasons/causes for the
increasing rate of newborn babies being abandoned.
CI: lack of parental guidance, lack of spiritual guidance and peer
influence.
Persuasive: To persuade my audience that The Women, Family and
Community Development Ministry should set up baby hatches
nationwide.
CI: Baby hatches save lives, offer practical solution and offer timely
solution.
GROUPWORK: Based on the topics below,
come up with the SP and CI statements.
1. Benefits of learning another language.
2. Junk food – Killing ourselves with kindness.
3. Arranged marriage leads to a lasting relationship.
4. Sex education should/should not be allowed in schools.
5. Video games do/do not promote violence.
6. Exams give no real indication of ability.
7. Boarding school is/is not beneficial to children.
8. Why we should recycle.
9. Why we should donate blood.
10.National service should/should not be made compulsory.
11. Gangsterism is greatly influenced by violence shown on television.
12.Genetically modified (GM) foods should /should not be introduced.
Types of Persuasive Speeches
Questions of fact
2. Questions of value
3. Questions of policy
1.
Questions of Fact
This refers to something that we can know to be either true or
false, but right now we can argue about it. Includes historical
controversy, predictions, or questions of existence.
Examples:
1.
To persuade my audience that GM crops pose serious dangers.
2.
To persuade my audience that TV violence causes real world violence.
3.
To persuade my audience that Oswald acted alone when
assassinating President John F. Kennedy.
Question of Fact
General Purpose: To persuade
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that genetically engineered crops
pose serious dangers.
Central Idea: Genetically engineered crops have the potential to create major
environmental, health and …… hazards.
Main Points:
I. Genetically engineering crops will create environmental havoc by harming
beneficial insects while creating superbugs and superweeds that will be very
difficult to control.
II. Genetically engineered crops will create health problems by introducing
harmful toxins and allergens into foods without the knowledge of consumers.
III.….
Question of Fact
General Purpose: To persuade
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that poaching of wild animals is a
serious international problem.
Central Idea: Poaching is threatening the survival of animal species throughout
the African, Asian and American continents.
Main Points:
I. In Africa, poaching has claimed thousands of leopards, cheetahs, rhinoceroses,
and elephants.
II. In Asia, poaching has all but eliminated the Bengal tigers, snow leopards and
musk deer.
III.In the American continents, poaching has driven jaguars , bald eagles, grizzly
bears and timber wolves to the brink of extinction.
Questions of Value
A question about the worth, rightness, morality of an idea or
action.
Examples:
1.
To persuade my audience that capital punishment is legally and
morally wrong.
2.
To persuade my audience that Pepsi is better than Coke.
3.
To persuade my audience that arranged marriage leads to a lasting
relationship.
Question of Value
General Purpose: To persuade
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that capital punishment is
morally and legally wrong.
Central Idea: Capital punishment violates both the Bible and the U.S.
Constitution.
Main Points:
I. Capital punishment violates the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not
kill.”
II. Capital punishment violates the constitutional ban on “ cruel and
unusual punishment.”
Question of Value
General Purpose: To persuade
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that bicycle riding is the
ideal form of land transportation.
Central Idea: Bicycle riding is the ideal form of land transportation
because it is faster than walking or running, does not exploit animals or
people, is non-polluting, and promotes the health of the rider.
Main Points:
I.
II.
III.
Questions of Policy
A question about whether a specific course of action should or
should not be taken.
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
To persuade my audience that radio stations should play 30% of its
music content local music.
To persuade my audience that action should be taken now to solve
the nation’s shortage of nurses.
To persuade my audience that tougher enforcement laws should be
enforced on child abusers.
Question of Policy
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that action
should be taken now to solve the nation’s shortage of nurses.
Main Points:
I. The shortage of nurses has become a serious national
problem.
II. The problem can be solved by offering nurses better
salaries and better working conditions.
Organizing Your Main Points - Policy

Problem (No Solution) Pattern
Arrangement that focuses on the depth and breadth of a problem in order to convince
listeners it is a serious problem. Useful for claims of fact focused on the present or
future. Good choice when your target audience is uncertain or opposed to your position.

Problem/Solution Pattern
An arrangement pattern organized around two points – problem and solution. The
problem illustrates what you believe is wrong with the present conditions and why. The
solution should be multifaceted – what listeners should do personally as well as what
should be done on a larger scale.

Problem/Cause/Solution
A main point arrangement based on three points – problem, cause, and solution.
The problem (first point) and solution (third point) points are the same as in the
Problem/Solution pattern. The cause (second) point analyzes underlying reasons for why
the problem exists.
Problem-Solution Order
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that they
should sign universal organ donor cards.
Central Idea: We can take a step toward solving the serious
shortage of organ donors in the United States by signing
universal organ donor cards.
Main Points:
I. There is a serious shortage of healthy organs available for
transplant.
II. By signing a universal organ donor card you can help
solve this problem.
Problem-Solution Order
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that action is
needed to deal with the safety problems caused by
motorists’ use of cell phones.
Main Points:
I. The use of cell phones by motorists is causing a growing
number of accidents.
II. The problem can be solved by a combination of individual
and government action.
Problem-Cause-Solution Order
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the government must
increase its efforts to counter-act global warming.
Central Idea: The effects of global warming are catastrophic, but by
understanding what is causing this condition, the government can create
policies that can reverse these effects.
Main Points:
I. Scientists agree that a general warming of the earth's atmosphere
would lead to devastating effects on the environment.
II. There are several factors responsible for global warming.
III. Government policies directed at industry and individuals can
mitigate the effects of global warming.
Problem-Cause-Solution Order
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that colleges should take
stronger action to control campus crime.
Central Idea:
Main Points:
I. Crime on college campuses is a serious problem.
II. There are three major causes for the growth of campus crime.
III. An effective solution must deal with all three causes of the problem.
Persuasive Tools/Techniques
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Structural Techniques
Credibility Elements
Openings & Closings
Words, Phrases & Sentences
Mood Swings
Choreography
1. Structural Techniques
 Formats or Outlines .
Set yourself above the ordinary. Choose an outline that which 'sells' your
premise or your product. Try telling a story, debate the pros and cons
with yourself, do a series of affirmations. Be aware of what your
audience will best relate to.
 Look for common grounds.
Include a statement such as, "I know that all of us can agree that preventing
unwanted pregnancies is important." By doing so, you reach out to people on
the other side and demonstrate that you're not the enemy-- and then they'll be
more likely to listen to you.
 Lead them with logic.
Develop your point step-by-step. Material can be organized in a variety of
formats, from the traditional 1., 2., 3., approach to a time line, to a
series of causes and effects. What is important is to regularly, and,
blatantly, let the audience know where you are, and, where you are
going.
Organizational Outline
2. Credibility Elements
 Authorities
Quoting recognized authorities in your topic area verifies that
you have both done your homework, and, also, know what you are
talking about.
 Document your factual information and references.
Never leave an audience member questioning where you got your
facts...which means he or she is questioning the fact itself.
 Experience
When you speak, you need to be regarded as an authority. Your
experience is one of the primary things that give you standing in the
eyes of your listeners. Use phrases as, "in my 15 year's of working in
this field", or, " each of the dozen times we have run this project."
Three Appeals of Reason
1. Ethos stands for credibility. Establish
yourself as someone who is credible in their
eyes, it will be easy to persuade them to feel as you
do. How? Through your experience, facts
presented and authorities/experts quoted.
2. Pathos, or emotional persuasion is simply
a way of appealing to somebody's
emotions in order to convince them of
your argument. (Refer MLK speech)
3. Logos speaking has to do with persuading
someone through the use of logic. How? One
of the most effective ways is by developing a
coherent speech that moves logically
through the subject …use suitable
transitions/discourse markers/linkers. If
you keep your audience in mind and develop a
good argument, they will be able to follow it to its
natural conclusion.
Example …
The abandoned body of a newborn baby girl laid motionless in a heap of
garbage. Ants have already began to swarm over the little body. This grim
picture of a newborn baby or foetus being abandoned in toilets, rubbish
dumps,
garbage bins and rivers – many of them already dead – is no longer an
unfamiliar scene in our society today.
According to a statistics from the Bukit Aman police head-quaters 580 babies
and foetus were abandoned between 2000 and 2006. What about those who
have been successfully disposed without a trace? What about the illegal
abortions in private clinics?
The question is, do we want to continue to see innocent newborn babies being
left for dead or can we offer practical solutions to this serious problem?
3. Openings & Closings
 Openings
Tell them why they should listen.
 Closings
Don't just quit! The closing must have a clear cut call to action that
prods listeners to do what you want.
Work the group to a conclusion and then ask them for some response.
The concluding paragraphs of the speech should always have a
certain specific action that you would like the audience to
perform.
Examples:
"Now, that you know how dire the situation is, and how little time we
have, what are you going to do to help us make a difference in these
children‘s lives?"
"Now you know the problem, can we count on you to help with the
project?"
4. Words, Phrases & Sentences
 The basic rule of thumb for this very extensive topic is to keep your language
concrete, descriptive and clear.
 Sticking to the active voice.
Say, " we found a problem" rather than "it was brought to our attention that
there was a problem."
Instead of saying, "We have been told of a solution," say "We have a solution."
 Inclusiveness
Refer to our team, working with them, all of us, together,etc.
 Win with words.
Surveys show that people respond well to particular words such as "improved",
"natural", "pure", "tested' and "recommended".
Cut down the use of words like "maybe", "might", "possibly", etc. Instead, use
powerful positive phrases like "we will" and "we must" that convey
purposeful action.
5. Mood Swings
 Match every facet of your presentation to the
mood. A presenter's credibility is suspect when he
or she talks about a tragic situation while grinning
broadly. The audience is also totally confused when
we speak of undertaking a project with enthusiasm
and vigor while we are drooping across the stage.
6. Choreography
 To get your audience members to react to your text, you will
need a variety of dynamics.
1. Physical – move around, raise and lower your voice, use
pace and pause, involve the audience, use hand gestures,
use props.
2. Psychological – do not be afraid to show a little emotion.
Your body and voice must match the tone of your
words. If your language is strong, you must present a
physical force to go along with your delivery. Let the words
speak for themselves; reflect their nature through
your voice. If you use the word "strangle," say it with a
hint of menace in your voice.
Assessment 3 – Persuasive (30%)
Week 14
1. Speech Outline (10%)
2. Presentation (20%)

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