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BILITERACY OUTSIDE THE BOX:
Meeting the Needs of Struggling
Second Language Learners
LUPE LLOYD & ASSOCIATES, INC.
PROFILE OF A GRADUATE
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GLOBAL CONTEXT
ECONOMIC CONTEXT
TECHNOLOGY CONTEXT
ACADEMIC CONTEXT
SOCIAL CONTEXT
LITERACY CONTEXT
LINGUISTIC CONTEXT
PERSONAL CONTEXT
What language and literacy
skills will these graduates need
for the future?
MYTHS ABOUT LANGUAGE
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They don’t need Spanish let’s just teach them English. The
more English the more better theory.
This actually slows down language acquisition and causes
cognitive regressions. They need both to accelerate
academically.
If we teach the two languages together the kids get
confused. The brain has the capacity for 40 languages.
They can transition later. Transition seldom happens until it
is time to sink or swim. There is a 40% drop out rate for
ELLs.
They have to be reading in Spanish before we teach them to
read in English. Most students are struggling in 3rd through
5th grade with decoding, high frequency words, fluency,
comprehension, spelling, and writing in English.
Pobrecitos…it’s too hard for them. Students struggle with
comprehension or STAAR analytical reasoning with only one
or two years of English experience.
If we only focus on Spanish success, we have left
behind English language acquisition and created
academic gaps.
WHAT RESEARCH SAYS ABOUT LANGUAGE
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Language begins in the womb as parents sing, speak
or read to a child.
The younger the child, the more predisposed to
language with no accent.
After puberty the synapses in the brain solidify and it
is harder to discriminate sounds. That is why some
people never loose their accent.
The strength in L1 or first language has a direct
correlation to the strength in L2 or second language.
If a child only receives partial development in his
first language, it will impair the acceleration of the
second. Referred to as fossilization.
Language is developmental and academic language
must be explicitly taught and only occurs with formal
schooling.
True proficiency is being able to listen, speak, read,
and write in a language.
Only similar features of a language transfer
everything else must be explicitly taught.
REASERCH BASED BEST PRACTICES
BALANCED BITERACY PRACTICES
LUPE LLOYD
ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE
BILITERACY MODEL
Recognized by U.S. Department of Education for
Academic Excellence
ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE BILITERACY
MODEL COMPONENTS
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Academic development in two languages Pre-K – 5th
Continued development at secondary level or third language.
Students acquire AP Credits for college in Spanish and
graduate with three languages.
Simultaneous literacy development
Explicit balanced literacy development in both languages
No transition, only biliteracy development
Academic development in two languages in ELA, Math,
Science, and Social Studies.
Closes language and academic gaps by third grade.
Most students have the capacity to test on the STAAR in
English 3rd-5th
Biliteracy development continues beyond English acquisition
Students are assessed continuously in two languages
Data driven decisions are used for needed interventions
LINHOLM’S RESEARCH
BEST PRACTICES
• Long Term
Treatment
• Optimal
Input in Two
Languages
• Integration
of ELA to
curriculum
• Separation of
Languages
• Additive
Approach
• Home-school
Collaboration
EXEMPLARY DUAL LANGUAGE
NATIONAL STANDARDS
• Explicit language arts and content instruction
are provided in both languages systematically
throughout their development
• Program design and curriculum are faithfully
implemented
• Teachers use a variety of strategies to ensure
student comprehension
• Instruction promotes metalinguistic awareness
and metacognitive skills
• Comprehensive data and accountability system
based on State and Federal Standards
• Students are assessed in both languages
EFFECTIVE READING
INSTRUCTION RESEARCH
• Phonemic
Awareness
• Phonics &
Word Study
• Fluency
• Text
Comprehension
• Vocabulary
• Spelling &
Writing
KEY: BALANCED LITERACY
MUST BE DONE IN TWO LANGUAGES!!
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Read Aloud
Phonemic Study
Word Work
Literacy Centers
Guided Reading
Reader’s Workshop
Writer’s Workshop
STRATEGIC TARGETS
• BALANCED LITERACY
• EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION
• LANGUAGE AND VOCABULARY
DEVELOPMENT
• ACADEMIC LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY
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• CRITICAL READING SKILLS
EMERGENT STRATEGIES
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NEWS OF THE DAY
PHONEMIC STUDY
HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS
WORD WORK
COGNATES
SCAFFOLDED READING
SCAFFOLDED WRITING
LANGUAGE AND LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
TRANSFERABLE
VS NONTRANSFERABLE SKILLS
SPANISH VS ENGLISH
COMPARISON
• Spanish only has
five vowels and
vowel sounds
• Spanish is a
syllabic language
• There are no
variations
• English has many
vowel sounds
• Based on
individual
phonemic sounds
• 1,120 letter
combinations to
make 44 sounds
TRANSITIONAL MODELS
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Begin in Spanish and
transition to English by 3rd
or 4th grade
Sometimes at the expense
of their Spanish
OR Sometimes they never
transition and we hope it
happens in middle school
where all curricular
materials are in English
Usually blocks of one hour
during the day
May also include teaching
Math and Science in
English
Beware of Dual
Language Models that
use transitional
practices
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Begins in Spanish and
gradually transitions to English
May bridge from one language
to another but no equal access
to literacy in the second
language.
Sometimes at the expense of
their first language
OR Sometimes they never
transition
Usually 90/10, 80/20, 70/30,
60/40
upper grades are sometimes
50/50
May also include teaching of
Math and Science in English
Beware of Biliteracy Models
that use transitional
practices
PROBLEMS WITH TRANSITIONAL
MODELS
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If you drop the Spanish it will result in language loss
and cognitive regressions.
If the program is not developing the acquisition of
English and Spanish, it is not an effective program.
Even if you increase the time for English, it will not
give you better results. It falls under the more
English, the more better theory.
Only Explicit Literacy Development makes students
academically strong and must be anchored to strong
literacy practices.
If all of the textbooks they read are in Spanish, we
are not making them college ready.
If all of their college books and assessments are in
English, WE ARE NOT DEVELOPING CRITICAL
READERS
TRUE BILITERACY ROCKS
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The goal is to close the language and literacy gaps
by third grade so that students can do critical and
analytical reading in both languages in the upper
grades.
Most students in a Biliteracy program since Pre-K can
take English state assessments beginning in 3rd
grade.
The goal is for students to become bilingual and
biliterate pre-K-5th and have the option to take a
Spanish Literature course for Spanish speakers and
eventually do Advanced Placement for college credit.
OR Take a third language and graduate with three
languages
Biliterate students are college ready with strong
critical reading skills in English and Spanish for
success.
TRUE BILITERACY ROCKS
• Students graduating Biliterate or Tri-Literate
need to have a special designation on their
diploma.
• Districts committed to BILITERACY make it a
board policy.
• Uses simultaneous literacy development Pre-K
to 5th
• Anchors to research-based balanced literacy
practices
• Literacy skills are explicitly taught in both
languages
• Targets Biliteracy in all core subjects: Math,
Science, Social Studies, and Language Arts.
CONTACT INFORMATION
LUPE LLOYD & ASSOCIATES, INC.
(210) 872-1960
[email protected]

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