Nominative Case

Report
Nominative (the subject)


The subject performs the verb action.
Nouns have to AGREE with verbs
 Singular
nouns use singular verbs
 Plural nouns use plural verbs
Latin is an INFLECTED language: changing the
inflection at the end of a word changes how it is used
in the sentence. In Latin word order is less important
than the inflected endings
Singular vs Plural

Singular subjects have singular verbs
declension ends in –a
 2nd declension ends in –us or –r
 3rd declension has various endings
 1st

Plural subjects have plural verbs
declension ends in –ae
 2nd declension ends in –i
 3rd declension ends in -es
 1st
The Nominative endings:
DECLENSION
1st
2nd
3rd

SINGULAR
-a
-us, -r
?

PLURAL
-ae
-i
-es
Nominative

Subjects and complements both use the
nominative case.
 Aqua
in piscinā est frigida.
 Cornelius est senator Romanus.
 Mater est laeta.

When the nominative comes after a form of the
verb “to be” it is called a PREDICATE
NOMINATIVE
Accusativum (aka Obiectum)


The direct object receives the action of the verb.
I know you.
The singular accusative ends in an –m.
 1st declension ends in –am.
 2nd declension ends in –um.
 3rd

declension ends in –em.
Plural accusative always ends in an –s.
 1st declension ends in –as.
 2nd declension ends in –os.
 3rd
declension ends in –es.
Describe these pictures
in as much detail as you
can, using the nominative
and accusative cases.
Casus Genitivus

Used to show possessor
 -ae / -arum = 1st declension
 -i / -orum = 2nd declension
 -is / -um = 3rd declension



Translate “of” or with apostrophe
It must be next to the noun it possesses (usually
follows it).
Must be learned for vocabulary
 Tells what declension a noun
 Shows the base of the word
is
Describe in
detail one of
these pictures
using genitives,
both singular
and plural, from
all three
declensions.
Nominative
Genitive
(usually singular)
(usually singular)
Gender
soror,
mater,
filia,soror
filius,
matr
filifiliae
i is
, m.
f.,, f.daughter
son
sister
mother
1. Tells us what declension the noun is
•
-ae = 1st declension
•
-i = 2nd declension
•
-is = 3rd declension
2. By dropping this ending, we know what the
base of the noun is.
English
meaning
Casus Ablativus

Is used with Latin prepositions
e
/ ex
 Sub
 in
 cum

Can be used without a Latin preposition
(“naked ablative”). Translate using “by”,
“with”, “from”, or “in”.
Casus Ablativus Nudus
Naked Ablatives: by, with, from ,in
 Means / instrument: answers Latin
question Quo instrumento? The tool the
subject uses goes in the ablative case
without a preposition.
 Time: answers Latin question Quando?
Tells when the action of the sentence
takes place.

Ablatives tell us:
•Where (using prepositional phrases)
Davus in fossā stat. Geta e villā effugit.
•What time (naked ablative)
Brevi tempore Cornelia est defessa.
Cornelia in villā aestate habitat.
•What was used (naked ablative)
Pueri puellas vocibus terrent.
Marcus lupum ramo repellit.
•In what manner the action was done.
Davus magnā voce clamat.
Describe these pictures
using ablatives of tool,
time, and with
prepositions.
Praepositiones





Prepositional phrases usually describe physical location
or movement direction.
Prepositions are used with only two cases: ablative and
accusative.
Most prepositions “take” the accusative. The ones we
have learned are ad, per, prope, and in (“into”).
There are only 9 prepositions that “take” the ablative.
The ones we have learned are sub, e/ex, and in (“in /
on”), cum.
In a sentence, keep the preposition and it’s noun next to
each other.
Write sentences
about these pictures
using as many
prepositional phrases
as you can.
Praepositiones ablativo
serviunt.
e / ex
sub
cum
in
Praepositiones accusativo
serviunt.
prope
per
in
ad
Vocative Case
Is used when calling someone by name.
 It’s endings are identical to the nominative
except for the 2nd declension singular:

nouns have a vocative ending of –e.
 -ius nouns have a vocative ending of –i.
 -us

Watch your verb endings in sentences
with vocatives. The subject of the
sentence could be “you” or “y’all”.
WhatThe
other
case has
endings
vocative
case
is usedidentical
when to
thedirectly
vocative?
Can you
spot theby
exception?
addressing
someone
name.
1. Quid facis, Flavia?
2. Quid facitis, ancillae?
3. Abite, molesti pueri!
4. Cur nihil facitis, servi ignavi!
5. Pater! Nuntius in villā est!
6. Senatores! Tempus est ad urbem redire.
7. Cave, Sexte! Descende, Sexte!
8. Scribisne epistulas, Corneli?
Miscellania



All nouns have gender: masculine, feminine, and
we will learn neuter at a later date
Nouns we have met fall into 3 declensions
Adjectives have to have the same gender and
number as the noun they modify.
 Pater
occupatus
 Ancillae strenuae
 Servi defessi
Verbum
Verba have singular and plural endings.
 They change number according to their
subject.
 They can be transitive and take a direct
object.
 Intransitive verbs cannot take a direct
object, so don’t even look for one!

Personal Endings




I
-m or –o
you
-s
he/she/it
-t
we
-mus
y’all
-tis
they
-nt
Latin uses personal endings on its verbs instead
of separate pronoun subjects as English does.
The Latin personal endings correspond to the
same pronoun subjects that English uses.
A Latin verb has its subject built in to the verb. It
is not necessary to have a subject noun or
pronoun for a Latin sentence.
nos consulimus = we consult
But most importantly….READ A LATIN VERB
BACKWARDS!
Read a Latin verb “backwards”
induimus
mus
excitas
s
=
=
we put on
you awaken
intratis
tis
=
y’all enter
Observe the noun or pronoun subject, then put the
correct ending on the verb.
o
1. Ego villam intr______.
mus
2. Nos tunicas indui_______.
nt
3. Ancillae villam purgare para______.
tis
4. Vosne ad meam villam veni_________?
ego - o
i
tu - s
you (s)
-t
he, she, it
nos - mus we
vos - -tis
y’all
-nt
they
t
5. Princeps senatores ad urbem revoca________.
s
6. Tu nuntium ad villam duci________.
mus
7. Nos ancillas in villā non adiuva__________.
s
8. Tune magnum clamorem audi_____
ubi nos
mus
appropinqua______?
t
s
9. Ubi mater te excita_______,
Marce, tu non responde______.
mus
10.Dum nos in cubiculo dormi__________,
vos villam
tis
cura__________.
Do you remember these categories of
verbs? Let’s give them names.
portāre
timēre
surgere
arripere
audire
porto
portas
portat
portamus
portatis
portant
timeo
times
timet
timemus
timetis
timent
surgo
surgis
surgit
surgimus
surgitis
surgunt
arripio
arripis
arripit
arripimus
arripitis
arripiunt
audio
audis
audit
audimus
auditis
audiunt
1st
conjugation
2nd
conjugation
3rd
conjugation
3rd – i
conjugation
4th
conjugation
Which conjugation / category do the following verbs follow?
excitāre, conspicere, docēre, agere, induere, intrāre, venire?
Imperatives



The special verb form to give a command is called an
imperative.
The imperative verb has no subject (“you” understood).
Singular imperatives are used when giving a command
to one person.


Imperatives singular are formed by dropping the –re off the
infinitive form.
Plural imperatives are used when giving a command to
two or more people.


Imperatives plural are formed in the 1st, 2nd, & 4th conjugations by
adding –te to the singular form.
Imperatives plural in the 3rd conjugation end in –ite.
Infinitivum


Cornelius multas epistulas
scribere vult.
Can never be the only verb in a sentence.
It is usually introduced by verbs such as:
 vult
 potest
 necesse
est
 amat
 timet
 parat

It is called complementary because it completes
the meaning of the sentence.
Write a story about this picturing using
the following guidelines:
• Tell the story from the viewpoint of
one of the characters, using “I”,
“we”, and “you” verbs.
• Include at least one genitive
ursus, ursi, m. bear
porcellus, porcelli, m. piglet
Ior, ioris, m. Eyore
tigris, tigris, m. tiger
• Include three uses of the ablative:
1. Ablative with a Latin preposition
2. Ablative of time (naked abl)
3. Ablative of tool (naked abl)
• Include the following vocabulary:
amicus
fero, ferre
invenio, invenire
traho, trahere
bonus, bona
miser, misera
absum, abest
area
quamquam
cum

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