RtI: Response to Intervention Response to Instruction Kandy Smith Tennessee State Improvement Grant May 2010 Tennessee State Improvement Grant TN SIG http://sig.cls.utk.edu/ Tennessee State Professional Development Grant TN SPDG Contact Information • Middle and West TN Kandy Smith [email protected] • East TN Gail Cook [email protected] Recent ERIC search Response to Intervention Response to Instruction • 299 results • 91 results • Adding “High School” • 18 results • Adding “High School” • 5 results • Adding “Middle School” • 13 results • Adding “Middle School” • 3 results Response to Intervention • K-3 • IDEA driven (as part of LD referral process) • Additional time of day that student goes out of room to receive instruction • Program • Three-tier model (Reading First prototype) Response to Instruction • NCLB driven • Formative assessment • Differentiated instruction In middle, high school • Same as K-3 – what’s required: – Best-practice, research-based instruction – Benchmark assessments/universal screenings to identify those students who are at-risk – Ongoing progress monitoring to determine if intervention/instruction is proper treatment – (cont.) From Webinar – “Introduction to High School RTI”, February 11, 2020, National Center on RtI In middle, high school • Same as K-3 – what’s required: – Interventions, additional instruction for those who are at-risk/struggling – Data-based decision making – Additional intervention as necessary From Webinar – “Introduction to High School RTI”, February 11, 2020, National Center on RtI Program Availability • • • • • Think Link CompassLearning Odyssey Language ! DIBELS, AIMSWEB (through 8th) Study Island • What Works Clearinghouse – http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ Issues With Programs • • • • • Costs/Sustainability Technology Support Time in the day Credit for interventions Instruction/intervention that’s separate from curriculum – Research shows that most effective use of a program is when it is then connected to classroom instruction/practice More Effective • Intervention/instruction based on curriculum standards • In classroom with general education experts • Meets legal requirements and provides best-practice instruction BEST-PRACTICE, RESEARCH-BASED INSTRUCTION Knowledge About Learners • Millennial Generation (Carter, 2008) – Constructivists – Short attention spans – Technology – Student-directed learning • Motivation Instructional Setting • Incorporate technology • Diversity in presentation • Large group instruction – Effective, engaging – 10-minute segments • Student-directed learning – Small groups – Stations Content Area Literacy • Teaching literacy skills needed for content area • Requiring reading/Supporting reading – Comprehension: summarization, identifying main idea, using context clues • Graphic organizers • Foldables • Small group discussions – Vocabulary • Tennessee Academic Vocabulary BENCHMARK ASSESSMENTS/UNIVERSAL SCREENINGS TO IDENTIFY THOSE STUDENTS WHO ARE AT-RISK Universal Screenings • TCAP results from previous years • Programs mentioned earlier DATA WE CAN HAVE: • TCAP practice tests • TN Academic Vocabulary Data we can have… • Maze passages to determine which students will struggle with classroom texts • Qualitative Reading Inventory – Provides independent, instructional, frustration level information concerning grade-level text Do need reading ability levels for students and readability levels on text we use in our classrooms Data we can have… • Tennessee Academic Vocabulary – Give benchmark assessment of terms – Then teach, progress monitor/assess, reteach • Curriculum-based assessments – Assess standards being taught ONGOING PROGRESS MONITORING TO DETERMINE IF INTERVENTION/ INSTRUCTION IS PROPER TREATMENT Curriculum-based assessment • English I – Standards: • 3001.1.2 Apply a variety of strategies to correct sentence fragments and run-on sentences. • 3001.1.9 Demonstrate understanding of common foreign words and phrases (e.g., RSVP, déjà vu, faux pas, du jour, bon voyage, alma mater, cum laude, femme fatale, esprit de corps, verbatim, E pluribus unum, prima donna, avant-garde, status quo, joie de vivre, carte blanche, caveat emptor, alpha and omega, tabula rasa, hoi polloi, ad nauseam). Curriculum-based assessment • Formative assessment/exit ticket: – Is the following a run-on sentence or a fragment? • When the hamburger fell off my tray and hit the floor. – Add to the above to make it into a complete sentence. – What does RSVP mean? – If I call someone a “prima donna”, am I complimenting or putting her down? Explain your answer. • (might even go to the EOC test for English I and pull questions – not same questions every time) Tennessee Academic Vocabulary • 8th grade social studies 33 words Beginning of course • Have a list of these – kids copy word and write what they know about it – not necessarily a set definition. For example: • “Dictatorship” – student might write – “it’s when a person has total control; I know Hitler was a dictator.” (cont.) Beginning of course • While not a full definition (needs to include idea of government), gives teacher and student an idea of where we’re starting –he’s pretty close • Next step – – Would this be a dictatorship? – Which of these is and which is not? – Why not? Gives teacher direction • Large group instruction – All words can be introduced once and discussed – All words can be included in quick reviews • Small group instruction – Group kids according to their needs – Call them in small groups to learn, review • Individual work on vocabulary – Vocabulary notebooks – Vocabulary expert cards INTERVENTIONS, ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTION FOR THOSE WHO ARE AT-RISK /STRUGGLING Intervention/ Additional Instruction • United Streaming, YouTube, textbookbased supports, ideas from – Have set-up – After the day’s lesson • Kids who need more as determined by formative assessment • Small group informal discussions, games Call a small group of five students • Everyone receives a set of same five/ten vocab words • Teacher says a definition; students quickly put word they believe she has defined face down • Teacher calls “show”; students flip over answers • Could then do “fill-in-theblank” sentences and students have to decide what word best completes the sentence. Could eventually have kids write words on paper or whiteboards (with spelling counting some, perhaps) DATA-BASED DECISION MAKING Team Decisions • Data-driven (summative and formative) • Efficient, effective discussions • Know what supports are available – Use them as needed • Medical treatment model – If this isn’t working, we try this… ADDITIONAL INTERVENTION AS NECESSARY Interventions • Standard Treatment • Problem-Solving • Interesting article about a high school in Colorado Springs, Colorado – List/Gather all of your resources: • Programs, teachers, materials – Organize those materials: • Which ones for Tier I, Tier II, etc. – Make decisions about students based on data – Track students – see if what you’re doing helps • Interesting article about a high school in Colorado Springs, Colorado – Might be productive to make a list of challenges – not to focus on but to be aware of – Concentrate on 9th graders – If large numbers of kids need intervention in a subject area, have to look at instruction – Won’t work if only a few teachers are invested RESOURCES References • Benner, S., Bell, S. & Broemmel, A. (2009) In R. Allington & A. McGill-Franzen (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Disabilities Research (pp. ). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. • Carter, T. (2008).Millennial expectations and constructivist methodologies: Their corresponding characteristics and alignment. Action in Teacher Education, 30(3), 3-10. • Hall, L. (2005). Teachers and content area reading: Attitudes, beliefs, and change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 403414. • Samuel, C. (2009). High schools try out RtI. Education Week, 28(19). • Vaughn, S., Fletcher, J., Francis, D., Denton, C., Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Cirino, P., Barth, A., Romain, M. (2008). Response to intervention with older students with reading difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 338–345.