### Circuits Lecture 3: Thevenin and Norton Theorem

```Circuits
Lecture 8: Thevenin and
Norton Theorem (1)

Textbook
• Chapter 2.5
Network
• A two-terminal network is a function represented
by i-v characteristics
• Given a network, computing its i-v characteristics,
and then label it with simpler equivalent network
i
v
Computing i-v characteristics
i
i
v
v
 Add a voltage source v
• v is a unknown variable
 Find i
• Represented by v
Obtain the relation of
i and v
 Add a current source i
• i is a unknown variable
 Find v
• Represented by i
Obtain the relation of
i and v
Computing i-v characteristics
i
Voltage
source v
Independent
Sources
x1, x2, x3 ……
v
i is the weighted sum of the voltage (or current) of the
sources.
i  av 
a
n
xn
n
constant
i  av  b
The relation of i and v
is linear!
Computing i-v characteristics
• The v-i characteristics is linear!
i
i=mv
v
Case 1: current source
Case 2: voltage source
Case 3: resistor
v
i
R
Resistor
with resistance 1/m Ω
m>0, normal resistor
m<0, ?
Negative resistor
Computing i-v characteristics
Case 4: resistor
+voltage source
i
Rt
v oc
v oc
Rt
v oc
v
v  v oc  R t i
i
v
Rt

v oc
Rt
Computing i-v characteristics
• The v-i characteristics is linear!
Case 1: current source
Case 2: voltage source
Case 3: resistor
Case 4: resistor +voltage source
i
v
Thevenin Theorem
Two
Terminal
Network
 Two terminal network consists entirely of
independent source, resistor and controlled
sources.
 If controlled sources are present, then the
control variables is within the same network.
Find voc and Rt directly without drawing i-v characteristics?
Thevenin Theorem - voc
Two
Terminal
Network


v oc
v oc


Keep two terminals open
Thevenin Theorem - Rt
• Textbook P72 - 73
i
i
v
Suppress the independent sources:
Voltage Source
Short
Open
Current Source
(As we have done in Superposition)
v
Rt 
v
i
Why?????
Thevenin Theorem - Rt (Example)
Suppress the
independent sources
• Refer to lecture 7
3
3
2
4V
2
Thevenin Theorem - Rt
i
i
v
v
v  v oc  iR t
Superposition:
Voltage source v
Independent Sources in
network: x1, x2, x3 ……
i  av 
a
n
n
xn
i
0
1
v
v oc
Rt
Rt
Rt 
v
i
0
Norton Theorem
Thevenin
Theorem
Two
Terminal
Network
i sc 
v oc
Rt
Rt
Norton
Theorem
Norton Theorem - isc
Two
Terminal
Network
i sc
i sc
Rt
Let two terminals short
After we find isc,
If we already know voc, Rt=voc/isc
If we already know Rt, voc=iscRt
i sc
Thevenin Parameters
• Voc, Rt and isc are Thevenin parameters
• voc: keep the two terminals open
• Rt: suppress the independent sources
• isc: let the two terminals short
Know any of two can find the last one
Example 2.14
i sc
Rt
Example 2.14
Open circuit
Find voc
Short Circuit
Find isc
Set to Zero
Find Rt
Example 2.14
i sc
Rt
3 mA
• Short Circuit
3 mA
v x  5v x
vx  0
ix  0
Then “open circuit” or “source set to zero”?
i sc
Example 2.14
Rt
3 mA
 10 k 
• Source set to zero
Rt 
i
v x  5v x  vt
it  i x  i 
Rt 
vt
it

it 
 4vx
4vx
10 k

2k
  10 k 
 4vx
40 k
it
Find
equivalent
resistance Rt
vt   4 v x
vx
vt

vx
2k

vx
10 k

4vx
10 k
Example 2.14
 10 k 
i sc
Rt
3 mA
 10 k 
v oc  i sc R t
 3 mA   10 k     30 V
 10 k 
Example 2.14
v oc   30 V
• Check: Open circuit
v x  5v x  v
v  4vx
3 mA 
vx
2k

 4vx
40 k

vx
2k

vx
10 k

4vx
10 k
 30 
v   4v x   4
   30
 4 
vx 
30
4
Example
• Find the current and voltage on RL
Circuit Analysis
Three-terminal networks?
Obliterate RL
Thevenin Theorem
Example
• Find the current and voltage on RL

i
+
-
Find Thevenin Parameters
Example
• Find the current and voltage on RL
Open circuit
Short Circuit
Set to Zero
Find voc
Find isc
Find Rt
Example
• Find the current and voltage on RL
=  −
3
4
=
−
1 + 3
2 + 4
So easy!
Open circuit
Find voc
Example
• Find the current and voltage on RL
R1, R2, R3, R4:

=

1

2
=
1 + 2
= 1 − 3 =
Short Circuit
Find isc
=
=
1 2
3 4
+
1 + R 2 3 + R 4
3

4
=
3 + 4

2
4
−
1 + 2 3 + 4
3
4
−
1 + 3
2 + 4
(last page)
=

=⋯

Example
• Find the current and voltage on RL
Simple (but hard to figure out)
1 3
2 4
=
+
1 + R 3 2 + R 4
Set to Zero
Find Rt
=

?

Check by yourself
Example
• Find the current and voltage on RL

i
+
3
4
−
1 + 3
2 + 4
1 3
2 4
=
+
1 + R 3 2 + R 4
=
Homework
• 2.62, 2.64
Homework
Homework
Thank you!
• 2.62
• Rt=5k, isc=vs/8k, voc=5vs/8
• 2.64
• Rt=-60, isc=is, voc=-60is
Homework
Rt=100k,isc=-20m
Homework
Rt=-1k/60, voc=2
Acknowledgement
• 感謝 徐瑞陽(b02)
• 糾正錯誤的作業答案
• 感謝 林楷恩(b02)
• 糾正錯誤的作業答案
```