Braille Formats 2011 Clarifying The Code CTEBVI Workshop 201 Presented by: Amanuensis Braille Presenter: Robert Roldan [email protected] New Guidelines • This workshop is based on the Braille Formats Print-to-Braille Transcription, 2011 • Guidelines are available at http://www.brailleauthority.org/formats/2011 manual-web/index.html • Nemeth application of Braille Formats 2011 guidelines are available at http://www.brailleauthority.org/nemethupdates2012 Introduction • The new Braille Format supersedes all prior publications and updates of Braille Formats: Principles of Print-to Braille Transcription. • EBAE, Foreign Language Guidelines for Braille Transcription, and the Guidelines and Standards for Tactile Graphics are being revised to include the adopted changes in braille symbols and new formats. Where there are conflicts between these publications and the new Braille Formats: Principles of Print-to-Braille Transcription, 2011, follow Braille Formats. • It is expected that these guidelines will be applied unless a situation is not covered. • The new guidelines allow transcribers to make decisions when confronted with material not specifically addressed within the code. Basic Principles and General Formats • • • • • Use the appendices as a quick reference guide. Clarity supersedes space saving Consistency must be maintained throughout Follow Print (wysiwyg) Review the Special Symbols and Transcriber’s Notes summaries found in the fundamentals section of each guideline. Major Changes • Braille Page Numbering. A distinction is made between transcriber inserted pages and print pages, which allows us to retain front matter print page order. • Headings. A new heading level accommodates the need for additional distinction in today’s textbooks. • Nested Lists. All multilevel lists are formatted the same and the principles apply for all situations. • Footnotes. Most footnotes are now at the end of the print page. This enables the flow of thought to be preserved. There is a new generic footnote indicator which will be used with all types of footnotes. Mathematical and Non-Alphabetic Signs and Symbols • Entire section of old Braille Formats was removed – – – – – – Signs of Measurement Signs of Enclosures Mathematical Signs Currency Signs Non-Alphabetic Signs Arrows and Arrowheads • Since the New Formats does not cover how to handle these symbols consult the EBAE formats and its related 2007 update. • Revised Appendix G and the future EBAE updates will deal with how to handle the symbols. Check the BANA site for updates. Partially Technical Works • New Nemeth Code Indicators – Use opening and closing Nemeth Indicators • _% Begin Nemeth Code • _: End Nemeth Code – Preceded and followed by a space – Encloses the Nemeth material – Must appear on one line whenever possible • Line breaks must comply with Nemeth code – Formatted according to Nemeth code – Emphasize according to Nemeth code – All Nemeth symbols must be listed on the Special Symbols page or in TN before the text. • Note: Entire volume done in Nemeth doesn’t require listing of Nemeth symbols on the Special Symbols page – Transcriber’s note • Before affected text for infrequent occurrences • On the TN page when repeated 2 or more times in a volume Nemeth Example When you know the principal amount, the rate and the time. The amount of interest can be calculated by using the formula: I = Prt We have 4500 to invest with a rate of 9.5% for a 6 year period of time. I = 4500 X .095 X 6 I = 2565 ,:5 Y 9T]E/ C _% ,I ,WE H P]IOD ( _% ,I ,I .K "K ! PR9CIPAL AM.T1 ! RATE &! "T4 ,! AM.T ( 2 CALCULAT$ 0US+ ! =MULA3 .K ,PRT _: #DEJJ 69VE/ )A RATE ( [email protected] =A #F YE> "T4 .K #4500@*.095@*6 #2565 _: Foreign Material • Foreign language words or phrases within an English language paragraph are contracted as though they are English. Use the dot 4 accent indicator for accented letters. – Font attributes no longer determine whether or not the foreign language is contracted. – Letter sign is used before any single letter or letter combination that could be mistaken for an English contraction or short-form word • Foreign Language rules are used for entire passages in a Foreign Language. – Braille uncontracted – Use the appropriate foreign language symbols for accented letters – No letter indicator • Punctuation in a position not normally seen in English context requires the use of the foreign language punctuation indicator. – Insert ; (56), before the unusual punctuation in English context. – The foreign language punctuation indicator is listed on the Special Symbols page, or included in a transcriber’s note before the text. Transcriber’s Notes • If a special format or usage occurs more than once in a volume, include it on the Transcriber's Notes page. – Electronic addresses in this volume are transcribed according to the Computer Braille Code, 2000, 2010 Updates. No contractions are used. See list of Computer Braille Code symbols on special symbols page. – Remember that the CBC statement for numbers being brailled in lower cells goes on the Special Symbols page following the CBC symbols • Any wording not shown in the print text inserted by the transcriber is treated as a transcriber's note. • Any changes from print to braille that the guidelines do not explicitly state that a TN is not required, must be explained in a TN. • Embedded Transcriber's Notes. An embedded transcriber's note is seven words or fewer and may be shown within the text or standing alone, e.g., used as a heading. Embedded TN Examples TN Format Changes • Headings, captions, and other descriptive terms added to the text are enclosed in a TN • Embedded TN is placed immediately following the affected text • TN of 8 words or more is brailled in a 7/5 format before the affected text. • No blank lines are used unless required by other formats TN Format Examples TN Format Changes (cont.) • Identifications of two or more abbreviations or symbols are listed in 1-3, preceded and followed by a blank line. The closing transcriber’s note indicator follows the last item. Headings • Centered Heading – Main Topic – Centered on page – Blank lines before and after • Exceptions – No blank line between Centered Heading and Top Box Line – No blank line in Table of Contents when an entry follows – No blank lines before or after alphabetic divisions • Centered Title and Author – No guideline stating that they are treated as a series of centered headings. – These headings are separated by a blank line as Example 4-2 shows. Cell-5 Heading • Cell-5 Heading – Follows a Centered Heading – Can be followed by an equally important Cell-5 heading – Blank line before – No blank line after unless the heading is followed by column material Headings (cont.) • Cell-7 Heading – Blank line before – No blank line after unless the heading is followed by column material – Cannot be followed by any heading including its own • Devise an Icon when it is not clearly described by the heading or it is referred to in the text • When a series of headings fills an entire page the last heading must be kept with 1 line of text on the next page. Font Attributes • Retain all font attributes that add meaning to the text and/or may be referenced by the teacher, another reader, or elsewhere in the book or corresponding workbook/handbook • When can font attributes be omitted – When they are not directly referred to in the text and/or they are for decorative purposes. – When the format used distinguishes it from regular text • See sections 5.3 and 5.4 for specific examples Boldface Indicators _. (456, 46) Single bold indicator _.. (456, 46, 46) Double bold indicator ._. (46, 456, 46) Single bold italic indicator ._.. (46, 456, 46, 46) Double bold italic indicator • Use individual indicators for one to three words with the same attribute • Use the appropriate beginning and ending indicators for four or more words with the same attribute Underlining, Shapes, Color Indicators, and Highlights • • • • • • • • • • _- Single underline indicator _7 Double underline indicator $ Shape indicator (followed by one or two unspaced letters) for words enclosed in shapes, e.g., circles, boxes, etc. Color indicator is _ (456) followed by an unspaced letter such as b for blue. Highlight indicator is _ (456) followed by an unspaced letter such as y for yellow to indicate the color of highlighting, followed by an unspaced h for highlighting All are closed by the termination sign Place a blank space after opening symbol Place a blank space before the termination sign The opening indicator must be on the same line as the first word The termination sign must be on the same line as the last word Note: Place the termination indicator after the ending punctuation when the colored text ends a sentence. If the emphasized text is inside of quotation marks or signs of enclosures place the symbols outside of the entire expression. Examples Illustrative Material • Illustrations that have Copyright or Source information but no captions or additional information that require there inclusion are omitted. • When an illustration has a caption, copyright information, and a transcribers description the order of presentation is as follows: – Caption – Copyright – Description (Transcriber’s Note) • Agency decision to omit illustrations – Agency decides if the photo credits at back of book are omitted – Agency decides if the listing of photo credits in a table of contents is omitted – Transcriber’s note is required explaining omission of illustrations and table of contents entry Boxed Material • Boxing lines are listed on the Special Symbols page. – Format to use: • 77 (2356, 2356) Open box line • Colored boxes are brailled using the colored font attribute followed by a blank space and the box line. – Color font attribute symbol is listed on the special symbols page with font attributes. – Format is explained on the Transcriber’s Notes page • Blank line requirements for the top and bottom box lines take precedence over the Attribution, Cross Reference, and Incidental Note blank line requirements. Displayed Material • Cell 3 is used as the adjusted left margin for most displayed material. To accommodate various print formats, it may be necessary to change this left margin for some types of displayed material. • The adjusted left margin for displayed text in exercise material is cell 5, with indented paragraphs in 7/5 format. • Transcription of displayed material needs to maintain the difference shown in print between the regular text and the displayed text. Displayed Material Changes • Horizontal word lists across the print page must fit on a single braille line, with each word separated by two blank cells. • Word lists that do not fit on a single braille line are changed to columns, listing the words from left to right. • Word lists with phrases are listed vertically. Exercise Material • Do not change the wording for directions or exercise material • Follow print format for instructions without specific question/answer activities. • Exercise without sub entries is in 1/3 • Exercise with sub entries is done using indented list format. – Two levels: 1-5, 3-5 – Three levels: 1-7, 3-7, 5-7 – Four levels: 1-9, 3-9, 5-9, 7-9 Etc. Example Problem in Exercises • Retain emphasis for labels identifying examples, models, samples of questions with answers, etc., when the label is not followed by punctuation. • Do not retain emphasis for labels identifying examples, models, samples of questions with answers, etc., when the label is followed by punctuation. • A blank line is required before and after exercise examples. • The format of exercise examples is the same as the format of the questions/answers that follow. • When a label is followed by a numbered item on the same line, move the numbered item to the next line so all numbered items begin in the same cell. Keep the label in cell 1. • When a label is followed by a pair of sentences, both sentences begin in cell 1. Tables and Related Data • When brailling a table label with the title (e.g., Table 1: Summary Data) do not braille the table number on one line and the title on the next line if they can fit on one braille line. • The cont. table heading for sequentially numbered tables that span more than one braille page is now used for all wide table formats? • When a sequentially numbered table is longer than one braille page the continued heading is not placed on the first page of the table, but must appear on line 25 of all subsequent pages. • The facing table format for a wide table cannot be used for tables that would require more than one set of facing pages. Sidebars • Definition: Publishing term for information placed adjacent to text. A sidebar is detached from the main text and found in a section either off to one side, above or below the text. Sidebars may or may not be linked, or related to the text. • Insert a sidebar before a paragraph if it is necessary for the understanding of the following text • Insert a sidebar after a paragraph when it adds supportive information • Insert a sidebar before a new section on the page or at the end of the print page when it provides extraneous information • Sidebars utilize the full width of the braille page. • The text layout of the sidebar dictates the format used, i.e., headings (centered, cell-5, cell-7), 3-1 paragraph, nested list, poetry, etc. • Insert a blank line before and after a sidebar when not enclosed in boxing lines Plays Single Identification for Multiple Characters • Include the identification with the first character. • Follow print punctuation used with other character names. Insert a colon when no punctuation is used. • Use a ditto symbol "1 (5, 2) for the remaining character identifications in the group. • The ditto symbol is included on the Special Symbols page, or in a transcriber's note before the text. Cartoons • Cartoons are formatted as a play. • It is often useful to insert a brief scene setting describing the cartoon and the characters before beginning the cartoon. Include this in a transcriber's note, starting on the line after the cartoon and title information • A blank line is inserted to separate scene settings from dialogue • Dialogue is in 1-3 • Frames use a 5/5 stage direction format • If necessary, a brief description of the action in the frame is enclosed in transcriber's note symbols following the character's name and colon. This description is not limited to seven words Notes • An agency can decide to place all of the notes in a separate volume. When done the volumes should have distinct headings. – Volume 3 – Notes to Volume 3 Spellers • Root words – Root words are brailled with contractions and font attributes using foreign language guidelines. – Ignore font attributes used with word parts, e.g., prefixes and suffixes, and identified root words, when they are under study. Alphabetic References • Guide words are brailled for all alphabetic references. • Agency can decide if they are to be omitted for indexes. Bibliographies • The three dashes symbol must be listed on the special symbols page.