industrialization

Report
THE
INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 9 SECTION 1
THE BEGINNINGS OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
BEGINS IN BRITAIN
The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly
increased output of machine-made goods that began in
England in the middle 1700s.
• The Agricultural Rev-Paves the Way
•
•
Enclosure movement allows farmers to try new methods and large farm
owners make small farm owners into tenant farming, meaning what?
Jethro Tull and the seed drill, significance?
• Rotating Crops
•
•
•
Moving crops, restoring nutrients
Selective breeding
Population grows and a need for what also grows?
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGINS
IN ENGLAND
•
Why the Industrial Revolution
Began in England
•
•
•
•
•
Large population
Natural resources that were required
for industrialization
Water power, iron ore, rivers, and
harbors
Economy and banking system
Political stability
Britain had all of the _________ of
__________ including land, labor, and
capital.
INVENTIONS SPUR
INDUSTRIALIZATION
•
Changes in the Textile Industry
•
•
•
•
•
•
Invention of the flying shuttle for
weavers leads to the invention of
the spinning jenny for spinners
Water power (water frame) used
to drive spinning wheels
Spinning mule makes stronger,
finer thread
Power loom speeds up weaving
Why did production move to
factories?
Eli Whitney invents the cotton
gin, purpose?
It’s important to know that….
“Spinning” is the process of creating yarn from various raw
fiber materials like cotton.
“Weaving” is a way to make fabric in which two sets of yarn or
thread are brought together to form fabric or cloth.
Invented by John Kay in 1733. In previous looms, the shuttle was
thrown, or passed through the threads by hand, and wide fabrics
required two weavers seated side by side passing the shuttle
between them. Kay mounted his shuttle on wheels in a track and
used paddles to shoot the shuttle from side to side when the weaver
jerked a cord. Using the flying shuttle, one weaver could weave
fabrics of any width more quickly than two could before.
(weaving)
Hand powered spinning jenny.
(spinning)
The water frame was an
improvement on the spinning
jenny, produces stronger
thread more efficiently.
(spinning)
The spinning mule makes high quality thread. A single
person could work 1,000 spindles simultaneously.
(spinning)
The power loom.
(weaving)
IMPROVEMENTS IN
TRANSPORTATION
•
Watt’s Steam Engine
•
•
Need for cheap, convenient
power source
James Watt and Matthew
Boulton combine to produce
the steam
engine…entreprenuer?
• Water Transportation
• Robert Fulton uses steam to
propel boats
• Significance of canals?
• Road Transportation
• Network of roads and
“turnpikes” by John McAdam
THE RAILWAY AGE BEGINS
• Steam-Driven Locomotives
•
•
Trevithick and the steam driven
locomotive
George Stephenson and the first
RR line in 1825
• The Liverpool-Manchester RR
•
RR built to connect the cities of
Liverpool and Manchester,
significance?
THE RAILWAY AGE BEGINS
• RR Revolutionize Life in GB
1. Gave manufacturers a cheap
way to transport goods
2. New _____ on the RR and in
mines (iron and coal for?)
3. Transport crops and fish
across countries
4. Easier transporting of people
9.1 DAILY QUESTIONS
1. Explain how population increase is connected to
improved food supplies and living conditions.
2. How were England’s cotton industry and America’s
cotton growers linked?
Honors Only
3. Was the revolution in textiles or in transportation
more significant to England? Why?
CHAPTER 9 SECTION 2
Industrialization
Case Study: Manchester
INDUSTRIALIZATION CHANGES LIFE
• How does industrialization change the way the British live?
• Industrial Cities Rise
•
• Growth of the factory system results in migration from rural to
urban areas, why?
• Urbanization  city building and the movement of people to cities
• Factories were built close to sources of energy like?
• London and other urban centers began to grow because of the
increased labor force and industry
Living Conditions
• Cities had no plans as to how to deal with the rapid increase in
population
• Sanitation, housing, education, protection were all issues
• How did factory owners live?
INDUSTRIALIZATION CHANGES LIFE
• Working Conditions
•
•
•
•
14 hours a day, 6 days
a week working year
round
Unclean, poorly lit, and
dangerous conditions
Life of a coal miner?
Who were the
cheapest laborers
during the Industrial
Revolution?
19c Bourgeoisie:
The Industrial Nouveau Riche
Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie
Stereotype of the Factory Owner
“Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life
Industrial Staffordshire
Problems of Pollution
The Silent Highwayman - 1858
The New Industrial City
Early-19c London
by Gustave Dore
Worker Housing in Manchester
Factory Workers at Home
Workers Housing in Newcastle Today
The Life of the New Urban Poor
Private Charities: Soup Kitchens
Private Charities:
The “Lady Bountifuls”
CLASS TENSIONS GROW
•
Middle class-a social class made up of
skilled workers, professionals, business
people, and wealthy farmers
•
The Middle Class
•
•
•
What groups become wealthier than the
landowners and aristocrats?
The middle class emerges, not rich or
poor…had a “comfortable” standard of living
The Working Class
•
•
•
Upset that machines were putting them out
of work
The Luddites and the attacking of machines
Rioted because of poor working/living
conditions
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF THE
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
•
Created job for workers, increased
wealth, contributed to progress in
___________, improved the
standard of living, and what else?
•
Also expanded education and overall
livelihood
•
Middle and upper classes had
immediate gains, for laborers it took
much longer (what improvements?)
•
Long-Term Effects
•
•
People in industrialized countries
are able to afford manufactured
goods
Working conditions improved
over the long term
THE MILLS OF MANCHESTER
•
Readily available waterpower
and labor
•
Unhealthy vs. wealthy
•
High risk=high reward
•
Highly dangerous, why? And for
who?
•
Industrialization would continue
without a government act until
1819
•
Ecological effects?
9.2 DAILY QUESTIONS
1. How did the Industrial Revolution provide hope for
improvement for England’s poor?
2. How would joining together in groups help workers win better
conditions and higher pay?
Honors Only
3. Why do you think young children continued to do heavy work in
Manchester factories even after the Factory Act? What does this
suggest about the relative power of industry compared to
government?
CHAPTER 9 SECTION 3
INDUSTRIALIZATION
SPREADS
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN
THE UNITED STATES
•
The United States had the same
________ resources as Britain
(resulted in the ability to industrialize)
•
The blockade during the War of 1812
allowed Americans to do what?
•
Industrialization in the United States
•
•
•
•
•
•
Britain attempts to keep the secrets of the
revolution
Samuel Slater and Moses Brown open the
first factory in RI
Lowell, Massachusetts becomes a booming
manufacturing center
Why did young girls flock to “mill towns”?
Textilesclothingshoes
Skilled laborers and farmers moved to
towns
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN
THE UNITED STATES
• Late Expansion of U.S. Industry
•
•
Agricultural until the end of the Civil
War
RR plays a significant role in
expansion
• The Rise of Corporations
•
•
•
Large businesses began selling
_____ or rights of ownerships to their
companies…these buyers became
part owners in their corporations
Stockholders share in the profits but
are not responsible for any debt
(also do not deal with day to day
operations)
Standard Oil and Carnegie Steel=big
profits
CONTINENTAL EUROPE
INDUSTRIALIZES
•
Europe watched Britain industrialize with great
envy…what was the issue?
•
Beginnings in Belgium
•
•
Belgium was the first after Britain to
industrialize, why?
• Illegal transfer of ideas helps Belgium
flourish
Germany Industrializes
•
•
1835 Germany begins copying the British
model
• RR play an important role, how?
• Industrial power=_________ power
Expansion Elsewhere in Europe
• “pockets” of industrialization
• How did France avoid the issues of
industrialization?
• Social structure, geography, and
transportation issues all limited
industrialization
THE IMPACT OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION
•
Shifts world power, increases
competition
•
Rise of Global Inequality
•
•
•
•
“widening the gap”
How did industrialized countries view
non-industrialized countries?
Imperialism was born out of
industrialization, what does this mean?
Transformation of Society
•
•
Industrialization=economic power
Hardships at the outset turned into
greater opportunities through
education and democratic
participation (and in turn social
reform)
9.3 DAILY QUESTIONS
1. What was the purpose of Britain keeping industrialization a
secret?
2. Why might railroads be even more important to U.S.
industrialization than to that of Britain?
Honors Only
3. Explain the relationship between industrialization and the
shift of world power.
CHAPTER 9 SECTION 4
REFORMING THE
INDUSTRIAL WORLD
THE PHILOSOPHERS OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION
Laissez-faire-letting owners of industry
and business set working conditions
without interference; free market,
unregulated by ____________
• Laissez-Faire Economics
•
•
•
Gov’t interference with the production of
wealth, favored free trade
Adam Smith writes The Wealth of Nations
supporting the idea of a free market
economy
3 natural laws of economics
• Self interest
• Competition
• Supply and demand
• The Economics of Capitalism
•
Along with Malthus and Ricardo, _______
is born, where the factors of production are
privately owned and money is invested in
business ventures to make a profit
•
Malthus’s view on
population? Ricardo?
•
Opposed efforts to help the
poor, minimum wage laws,
and better working
conditions…why?
THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
• Utilitarianism
• Jeremy Bentham develops the idea
that ideas, institutions, and actions
should be based on their
_____________
• The greatest good for the greatest
amount of people, individuals
should pursue their goals without
interference
• John Stuart Mill promoted an
equal division of profits, equality of
women’s rights, and reforms in the
legal and education systems
THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
• Utopian Ideas
•
•
Robert Owen improves working
conditions in his factory and
even provided _________ to
children
Owen’s “utopia” New Harmony
in Indiana was short lived but
influenced others that followed
• Socialism
•
•
•
The factors of production are
owned by the public and operate
for the welfare of all
Government should plan the
economy rather than rely on
what?
Gov’t control would result in the
promotion of equality and end of
poverty
MARXISM: RADICAL SOCIALISM
•
Marx and Engels introduce a radical form
of socialism in The Communist Manifesto
•
The Communist Manifesto
•
•
•
The “haves” (the bourgeoisie) and the “havenots” (workers/proletariat)…haves control
__________ and the poor_________
Call for an overthrow of the owners by the
proletariat
The Future According to Marx
•
•
•
How did Marx see the future of the capitalist
system?
Communism would be a complete form of
socialism where the _______ of _________ are
owned by the people, ________ property
would cease to exist, goods/services are
equally shared
Where did Marx inspire revolutions? What was
wrong with Marx’s ideas?
LABOR UNIONS
AND REFORM LAWS
•
Labor Unions and Reform Laws
•
•
•
•
•
•
Unions-workers joining together in
voluntary labor associations
Union workers worked together to gain
rights and did what if their demands
weren’t met?
Unions help the middle class before the
poorest groups because of the demand for
skilled labor
How did gov’t see unions at first?
By 1875 about _________ people were in
a union
Reform Laws
•
•
•
Factory Act of 1833 made it illegal for
children under 9 to work, children 9-12 8
hours, 13-17 12 hours
Mines Act, The Ten Hours Act (1847)
Legislation in the U.S.states’ rights
THE REFORM MOVEMENT
SPREADS
• The Abolition of Slavery
•
•
William Wilberforce leads the crusade
against slavery…slave trade abolished in
1807, slavery abolished in 1833 in Britain
Anti-slavery movements occur throughout
the world including the U.S. and Brazil but
finally ended by the end of the 19th
century
• The Fight for Women’s Right
•
•
•
The Industrial Revolution provided higher
paying jobs for women, however, they
were still paid less than men
Women led movements to address social
issues Jane Addams and Hull House
The International Council for Women
begins to question a woman’s inferior
status
THE REFORM MOVEMENT
SPREADS
• Reforms Spread to Many Areas of Life
• What areas were reformers
seeking to change at first?
• Horace Mann in Massachusetts
tackles public education, making
free public education the norm in
the United States and in Britain by
the late 1800s
• Alexis de Tocqueville addresses
the harsh conditions of
__________ and focuses on
rehabilitation
9.4 DAILY QUESTIONS
1. Explain how the “haves” and the “have-nots” are
interdependent or in other words, how they rely on one another.
2. How do you think joining a union or supporting a reform law
made workers feel?
Honors Only
1. How can slavery be perceived as an economic threat?

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