Chapter 5 PowerPoint

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Operating System Concepts
chapter 5
CS 355
Operating Systems
Dr. Matthew Wright
Basic Concepts
Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait.
Typical CPU Burst Distribution
CPU Scheduler
• The CPU Scheduler (short-term scheduler) selects a process in the
ready queue and allocates a CPU to it.
• CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a process:
1. Switches from running to waiting state
2. Switches from running to ready state
3. Switches from waiting to ready
4. Terminates
• In situations 1 and 4, the process releases the CPU voluntarily. This
is called nonpreemptive or cooperative scheduling.
• In situations 2 and 3, the process is ready to run, but it does not
have a CPU. This is called preemptive scheduling.
• Problem: If a process is preempted while updating shared data, the
system might be in an unstable state.
Dispatcher
• The dispatcher module gives control of the CPU to the process
selected by the short-term scheduler. This involves:
1. Switching context
2. Switching to user mode
3. Jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart
that program
• Dispatch latency: time it takes for the dispatcher to stop one
process and start another running
Scheduling Criteria
How do we determine which CPU scheduling algorithm is best?
Possible criteria:
• CPU utilization: percent of time that the CPU is performing
useful work
• Throughput: number of processes that complete their execution
per time unit
• Turnaround time: amount of time to execute a particular
process
• Waiting time: amount of time a process has been waiting in the
ready queue
• Response time: amount of time it takes from when a request
was submitted until the first response is produced
First-Come, First-Served (FCFS)
Scheduling
Process
Suppose processes arrive in the order P1, P2, P3.
P1
P2
0
24
P3
27
30
Burst
Time
P1
24
P2
3
P3
3
Average waiting time: (0 + 24 + 27)/3 = 17 milliseconds
Suppose processes arrive in the order P2, P3, P1.
P2
0
P3
3
P1
6
30
Average waiting time: (6 + 0 + 3)/3 = 3 milliseconds
Convoy effect: many small processes wait for one big process to give up
the CPU
Shortest-Job-First (SJF) Scheduling
• Idea: associate with each process the length of its next CPU burst.
Use these lengths to schedule the process with the shortest time.
• SJF is optimal: it gives minimum average waiting time for a given
set of processes.
• The difficulty is knowing the length of the next CPU request.
Example:
Process
Burst
Time
P1
6
P2
8
P3
7
P4
3
P4
0
P1
3
P3
9
P2
16
24
Average waiting time: (3 + 16 + 9 + 0) / 4 = 7
Length of Next CPU Burst
• For a given process, can we estimate the length of the next CPU
burst based on its previous CPU bursts?
• An exponential average is commonly used:
 = actual length of ℎ CPU burst
+1 = predicted length of next CPU burst
 = parameter, 0 ≤  ≤ 1, controls the influence of history
+1 =  + 1 −  
Note:
• If  = 0, then history has no effect.
• If  = 1, then only the most recent CPU burst matters
Length of Next CPU Burst
Example: let  = 0.5 and 1 = 10

+1 =  + 1 −  
guess actual


1
10
6
2
8
4
3
6
6
4
6
4
5
5
13
6
9
13
7
11
13
8
12
…
+1 =  + 1 −  −1 + ⋯ + 1 −   − + ⋯ + 1 −   1
Preemptive SJF Scheduling
• If a new process arrives in the ready queue with a shorter
expected CPU burst than the remaining expected time of the
current process, the scheduler could preempt the current process.
• This is called shortest-remaining-time-first scheduling.
• Example:
P1
P2
P4
P1
P3
0 1
Process Arrival Burst
Time Time
P1
0
8
P2
1
4
P3
2
9
P4
3
5
5
10
17
26
Average waiting time:
10 − 1 + 1 − 1 + 17 − 2 + (5 − 3)
= 6.5
4
Priority Scheduling
• A priority number (integer) is associated with each process.
• The CPU is allocated to the process with the highest priority (assume
that smallest integer corresponds to highest priority).
• Priority scheduling can be either preemptive or nonpreemptive.
• SJF is a priority scheduling where priority is the predicted next CPU burst
time.
• Example:
Process Burst Time Priority
P1
10
3
P2
P2
1
1
0 1
P3
2
4
P4
1
5
P5
5
2
P5
P1
6
P3 P4
16 18 19
• Problem: Starvation – low priority processes may never execute
• Solution: Aging – gradually increase priority of a process over time
Round Robin (RR) Scheduling
• Each process gets a small unit of CPU time (time quantum), usually
10-100 milliseconds. After this time has elapsed, the process is
preempted and added to the end of the ready queue.
• If there are n processes in the ready queue and the time quantum
is q, then each process gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at
most q time units at once. No process waits more than (n-1)q time
units.
• Example:
Using a time quantum of 4 milliseconds:
Process Burst Time
P1
24
P2
3
P3
3
P1
0
P2 P3
4
7 10
P1
P1
14
P1
18
P1
22
P1
26
P1
30
34
Round Robin (RR) Scheduling
• RR is basically FCFS with preemption
• Performance
q large  FCFS scheduling
q small  each processes appears to have its own processor
• Good performance requires that time quantum be large compared
to the time required for switching context.
Turnaround Time Varies with Time
Quantum
Practice
Suppose the following processes arrive for execution at the times
indicated, and they run for the times listed.
Process
Arrival Time
Burst Time
P1
0.0
12
P2
0.5
6
P3
1.0
4
P4
3.0
6
a) With FCFS scheduling, what is the average waiting time and turnaround
time?
b) With nonpreemptive SJF scheduling, what is the average waiting time
and turnaround time?
c) Would the SJF results be different if process P2 arrived at time 0.0?
d) What would happen if preemptive SJF scheduling is used?
Multilevel Queue
• Ready queue is partitioned into separate queues, for example:
– foreground (interactive) processes in one queue
– background (batch) processes in another queue
• Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm, for example:
– foreground queue scheduled Round-Robin
– background queue scheduled First-Come-First-Served
• Scheduling must be done between the queues. Some possibilities:
– Fixed priority scheduling: serve all foreground processes then
background processes—possibility of starvation.
– Time slice: each queue gets a certain amount of CPU time which
it can schedule amongst its processes; e.g. 80% to foreground in
RR and 20% to background in FCFS.
Multilevel Queue Scheduling
Five-level priority example
Multilevel Feedback Queue
• A process can move between the various queues depending on
how it uses the CPU.
• Aging can be implemented this way
• A multilevel-feedback-queue scheduler is defined by the following
parameters:
– number of queues
– scheduling algorithms for each queue
– method used to determine when to upgrade a process
– method used to determine when to demote a process
– method used to determine which queue a process will enter
when that process needs service
Examples of Multilevel Feedback
Queue
• Three queues:
1. Q0: highest priority; RR with time quantum 8 milliseconds
2. Q1: medium priority; RR time quantum 16 milliseconds
3. Q2: lowest priority; FCFS
• Scheduling
– A new job enters queue Q0 which
is served RR. When it gains CPU,
job receives 8 milliseconds. If it
does not finish in 8 milliseconds,
job is moved to queue Q1.
– At Q1 job is again served RR and
receives 16 additional
milliseconds. If it still does not
complete, it is preempted and
moved to queue Q2.
Thread Scheduling
• Operating system schedules kernel-level threads.
• In the many-to-one and many-to-many models, the
thread library schedules user-level threads to run on a
LWP.
• User-level thread scheduling is known as processcontention scope (PCS) since scheduling competition is
within the process.
• Kernel thread scheduled onto available CPU is systemcontention scope (SCS) since competition is among all
threads in system.
Multiple-Processor Scheduling
• CPU scheduling is more complex when multiple CPUs are available.
• Identical processors in a multiprocessor system are called
homogeneous.
• Asymmetric multiprocessing: only one processor handles
scheduling, I/O processing, and system services
• Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP): each processor is selfscheduling; all processes may be in common ready queue, or each
may have its own private queue of ready processes
– Most modern operating systems support SMP.
– SMP implementations must ensure that shared data structures
are handled responsibly.
Multiple-Processor Scheduling
• If a process moves from one processor to another, the new
processor’s cache must be updated with the process’ data.
• Processor affinity: process has affinity for processor on which it is
currently running
– soft affinity: OS often, but not always, keeps a process running
on the same processor
– hard affinity: a process can specify that it must not migrate to a
different processor
• System architecture
affects processor
affinity, especially for
non-uniform memory
access (NUMA)
Multiple-Processor Scheduling
• If each processor has its own private queue of processes, then
some processors might be idle while others are busy.
• Load balancing attempts to keep the workload evenly distributed
across all processors in an SMP system.
• Two general approaches:
– Push migration: a specific task checks the load on each
processor and redistributes (pushes) processes as necessary
– Pull migration: an idle processor pulls a waiting task from a
busy processor
• Linux, for example, uses both pull and push migration.
• Load balancing often counteracts the benefits of processor affinity.
Multicore Processors
• Recent trend: multiple processor cores on same physical chip.
• Faster and consumes less power than multiple chips.
• Multiple threads per core: can take advantage of memory stall to
make progress on another thread while memory retrieve happens
Single thread running on a single processor:
thread
C
M
C
M
C
M
C
M
time
C
M
compute cycle
memory stall cycle
Dual-threaded processor interleaving two processes:
thread1
thread0
C
C
M
C
M
C
M
C
M
C
M
C
M
C
M
time
M
Example: Solaris Scheduling
• Each thread belongs to one of six
priority classes: real time, system, fair
share, fixed priority, time sharing, and
interactive
• A real-time process runs before a
process of any other class.
• The system class runs kernel activities.
• Each class includes its own set of
priorities, which the scheduler converts
to global priorities.
• The scheduler selects the thread with
the highest global priority, which runs
until it blocks, uses its time slice, or is
preempted by a higher-priority thread.
• Higher priority threads are allocated
smaller time slices.
Example: Solaris Scheduling
Solaris dispatch table for time-sharing and interactive threads
new priority of a
thread that has
used its entire
time quantum
without blocking
(CPU-intensive)
new priority of a
thread that
returns from
sleep (e.g.
waiting for I/O)
Example: Windows XP Scheduling
• Windows XP uses priority-based preemptive scheduling.
• 32 priority levels
– Real-time class contains threads with priorities 16 to 31.
– Variable class contains threads with priorities 1-15.
– A thread with priority 0 is used for memory management.
– If no thread is ready to run, the system runs the idle thread.
• If a process uses its entire time quantum, the system may lower its
priority.
• If a process waits for I/O, the system may raise its priority.
• The window with which the user is currently interacting also gets a
priority boost.
• Windows tries to give good response time to processes that are
using the mouse, keyboard, and windows.
Example: Windows XP Scheduling
variable priority class
relative
priorities
within a
class
default relative priority
Example: Linux Scheduling
• Constant order O(1) scheduling time
• Two priority ranges:
– Real-time range from 0 to 99
– Other tasks given a nice value from 100 to 140
• Lower values indicate higher priority
• Higher-priority tasks get larger time slice than lower-priority tasks
Example: Linux Scheduling
• Each processor maintains its own runqueue and schedules itself
independently.
• Each runqueue contains active and expired arrays, indexed by
priority.
• When all tasks have exhausted their time slices (i.e. active array is
empty) the two arrays are interchanged.
Java Task Scheduling
• JVM specification says that each thread has a priority, but does not
specify how priorities and scheduling must be implemented.
• If threads are time-sliced, then a runnable thread executes until:
a) Its time quantim expires
b) It blocks for I/O
c) It exits its run() method
• Since some JVMs do not use time slices, a thread may give up the CPU
via the yield() method
public void run() {
• By calling the yield()
while (true) {
method, the thread
// perform a CPU-intensive task
offers to let another
...
process run; this is called
// now yield control of the CPU
Thread.yield();
cooperative
}
multitasking.
}
Java Task Scheduling
• Each thread has an integer-value priority in a specified range
Priority
Value
Comment
Thread.MIN_PRIORITY
1
minimum thread priority
Thread.NORM_PRIORITY
5
default thread priority
Thread.MAX_PRIORITY
10
maximum thread priority
• Threads inherit priority value of their parent
• Thread priority can be set via the setPriority() method.
• Priority of a Java thread is related to the priority of the kernel
thread to which it is mapped.
• Again, JVM implementations may implement prioritization
however they chose.
Algorithm Evaluation
• Deterministic modeling: takes a particular predetermined
workload and determines the performance of each algorithm for
that workload
– Advantage: simple
– Disadvantage: conclusions only apply for the specific workload
considered
• Queueing models: statistically describe the CPU and I/O bursts
– Little’s formula: Let  be the average queue length,  the
average waiting time, and  the average arrival rate for new
processes. If the system is stable, then:
 =×
– Advantage: useful in comparing scheduling algorithms
– Disadvantage: difficult to mathematically model complicated
scheduling algorithms
Algorithm Evaluation
• Simulations: program a model of the computer system; simulate
processes, CPU bursts, I/O, etc.; observe the results
– Trace tape: a record of the actual sequence of events in a real
system, used as in put for a simulation
– Advantage: can provide realistic results
– Disadvantage: high cost of creating a simulator and running
simulations
• Implementation: implement the scheduling algorithm in the OS
and see how it performs in practice
– Advantage: it’s the only completely accurate way of evaluating
a scheduling algorithm
– Disadvantage: high cost; computing environments change
over time

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