Chapter 14 The Milky Way Galaxy

Report
Chapter 14
The Milky Way
Galaxy
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 14
The Milky Way Galaxy
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Units of Chapter 14
Our Parent Galaxy
Measuring the Milky Way
Galactic Structure
The Formation of the Milky Way
Galactic Spiral Arms
The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy
The Galactic Center
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The Milky Way
• 200+ billion stars
• 100k light years across
• 10k light years thick at
the galactic bulge
• 1k light years thick in
the disc.
• 1 of 100s of billions
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Women In Astronomy
• Williamina Fleming
– Catalog of brightness and spectra
• Antonia Maury
– Stellar spectra leading to H-R Diagram
• Annie Cannon
– Spectra classification system
• Henrietta Leavitt
– Cepheid variable stars
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Williamina Fleming
Maid to Curator of Astronomical Photographs
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Antonia Maury
Classification of stellar spectra leading to H-R Diagram
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Annie Cannon
spectral classes O, B, A, F, G, K, M
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Henrietta Leavitt
'period-luminosity relationship‘ of Cepheids
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Human Computers
Harvard Observatory 1910
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Cepheid and RR Lyrae Stars
• Two stars played a key role in creating
a model of the universe.
• Variable stars allowed measurement of
luminosity and thus distance.
luminosity
Apparent brightness 
distance2
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Measuring the Milky Way
The variability of these
stars comes from a
dynamic balance
between gravity and
pressure – they have
large oscillations
around stability.
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Measuring the Milky Way
This allows us to measure the distances to
these stars.
• RR Lyrae stars all have about the same
luminosity; knowing their apparent magnitude
allows us to calculate the distance.
• Cepheids have a luminosity that is strongly
correlated with the period of their oscillations;
once the period is measured, the luminosity is
known and we can proceed as above.
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Measuring the Milky Way
The usefulness of these stars comes from
their period–luminosity relationship.
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Question 4
The period –
luminosity
relationship is
a crucial
component of
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a) measuring distances with Cepheid
variable stars.
b) identifying the mass of the Galaxy’s
central black hole.
c) determining the masses of stars in
an eclipsing binary system.
d) using spectroscopic parallax to
measure distances to stars.
Question 4
The period –
luminosity
relationship is
a crucial
component of
a) measuring distances with Cepheid
variable stars.
b) identifying the mass of the Galaxy’s
central black hole.
c) determining the masses of stars in
an eclipsing binary system.
d) using spectroscopic parallax to
measure distances to stars.
Cepheid variable stars with
longer periods have higher
actual luminosities; short-period
Cepheids are dimmer.
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Measuring the Milky Way
Many RR Lyrae stars
are found in globular
clusters. These
clusters are not all in
the plane of the
galaxy, so they are
not obscured by dust
and can be measured.
This yields a much
more accurate picture
of the extent of our
Galaxy and our place
within it.
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Measuring the Milky Way
We have now
expanded our
cosmic distance
ladder one more
step.
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Question 1
The location of the
galactic center was
identified using
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a) supernova remnants.
b) white dwarf stars in the spiral arms.
c) red giant variable stars in globular
clusters.
d) bright O and B stars in open clusters.
e) X-ray sources.
Question 1
The location of the
galactic center was
identified using
a) supernova remnants.
b) white dwarf stars in the spiral arms.
c) red giant variable stars in globular
clusters.
d) bright O and B stars in open clusters.
e) X-ray sources.
Harlow Shapley used pulsating RRLyrae variables as distance indicators
to the globular clusters.
He then deduced the distance and
direction of the Milky Way’s center.
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Question 2
Our Sun is
located in the
Milky Way
Galaxy
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a) about 30 Kpc from the center in the
halo.
b) 30,000 light-years from the center in
a globular cluster.
c) at the outer edge of the galactic disk,
in the plane.
d) about halfway from the center, in the
spiral arms.
e) in the bulge, near the Orion arm.
Question 2
Our Sun is
located in the
Milky Way
Galaxy
a) about 30 Kpc from the center in the
halo.
b) 30,000 light-years from the center in
a globular cluster.
c) at the outer edge of the galactic disk,
in the plane.
d) about halfway from the center, in the
spiral arms.
e) in the bulge, near the Orion arm.
The Sun orbits the center of
the Galaxy within the disk,
taking about 225 million years
to complete one orbit.
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Our Parent Galaxy
From Earth, we see few stars when looking out of
galaxy (red arrows), many when looking in (blue and
white arrows).
Milky Way is
how our Galaxy
appears in the
night sky (b).
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Question 3
Detailed measurements
of the disk suggest that
our Milky Way is
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a) a spiral galaxy.
b) a barred spiral galaxy.
c) an elliptical galaxy.
d) a quasar.
e) an irregular galaxy.
Question 3
Detailed measurements
of the disk suggest that
our Milky Way is
a) a spiral galaxy.
b) a barred spiral galaxy.
c) an elliptical galaxy.
d) a quasar.
e) an irregular galaxy.
Measurements of stellar motion in and near the bulge
imply that it is football shaped, about half as wide as it is
long, characteristic of a barred spiral galaxy.
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Spiral Galaxies
M31
Andromeda which can
be seen with the naked
eye. 2.5Mly away
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M101
NGC 4565
Finding
Andromeda
near
Pegasus
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Measuring the Milky Way
One of the first attempts to measure the Milky
Way was done by Herschel using visible stars.
Unfortunately, he was not aware that most of the
galaxy, particularly the center, is blocked from
view by vast clouds of gas and dust.
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Measuring the Milky Way
We have already encountered variable
stars – novae, supernovae, and related
phenomena – which are called cataclysmic
variables.
There are other stars whose luminosity
varies in a regular way, but much more
subtly. These are called intrinsic variables.
Two types of intrinsic variables have been
found: RR Lyrae stars and Cepheids.
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Measuring the Milky Way
The upper plot is an
RR Lyrae star. All
such stars have
essentially the same
luminosity curve, with
periods from 0.5 to 1
day.
The lower plot is a
Cepheid variable;
Cepheid periods
range from about 1 to
100 days.
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Overlay of Images
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Galactic Structure
This artist’s conception shows the various parts
of our Galaxy, and the position of our Sun.
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Galactic Structure
The galactic halo and globular clusters formed
very early; the halo is essentially spherical. All
the stars in the halo are very old, and there is
no gas and dust.
The galactic disk is where the youngest stars
are, as well as star formation regions –
emission nebulae, large clouds of gas and
dust.
Surrounding the galactic center is the galactic
bulge, which contains a mix of older and
younger stars.
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Galactic Structure
This infrared view of our Galaxy shows much
more detail of the galactic center than the
visible-light view does, as infrared is not as
much absorbed by gas and dust.
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Galactic Structure
Stellar orbits in
the disk are in a
plane and in the
same direction;
orbits in the
halo and bulge
are much more
random.
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The Formation of the Milky Way
Any theory of galaxy formation should be able to
account for all the properties below.
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The Formation of the Milky Way
The formation
of the galaxy is
believed to be
similar to the
formation of the
solar system,
but on a much
larger scale.
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Question 5
In the formation
of our Galaxy
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a) the spiral arms formed first.
b) the globular clusters formed first.
c) the disk component started out thin
and grew.
d) spiral density waves formed first.
e) the bar in the bulge formed first.
Question 5
In the formation
of our Galaxy
a) the spiral arms formed first.
b) the globular clusters formed first.
c) the disk component started out thin
and grew.
d) spiral density waves formed first.
e) the bar in the bulge formed first.
Globular clusters contain
very old stars, no gas or
dust, and orbit around the
center randomly.
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Galactic Spiral Arms
Measurement of the position and motion of gas
clouds shows that the Milky Way has a spiral
form.
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Galactic Spiral Arms
The spiral arms cannot rotate along with the
galaxy; they would “curl up.”
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Galactic Spiral Arms
Rather, they appear to
be density waves, with
stars moving in and
out of them
much as
cars move
in and out
of a traffic
jam.
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Galactic Spiral Arms
As clouds of gas and dust move through the spiral
arms, the increased density triggers star
formation. This may contribute to propagation of
the arms. The origin of the spiral arms is not yet
understood.
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The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy
The orbital speed of an object depends only
on the amount of mass between it and the
galactic center.
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Question 6
What two
observations
allow us to
estimate the
Galaxy’s mass?
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a) the Sun’s mass and velocity in orbit
around the galactic center
b) the rotation of the bulge and disk
components
c) the Sun’s age and age of globular
cluster stars
d) the motion of spiral arms and the
mass of the central black hole
e) the Sun’s orbital period and distance
from the center
Question 6
What two
observations
allow us to
estimate the
Galaxy’s mass?
a) the Sun’s mass and velocity in orbit
around the galactic center
b) the rotation of the bulge and disk
components
c) the Sun’s age and age of the globular
cluster stars
d) the motion of spiral arms and mass
of the central black hole
e) the Sun’s orbital period and distance
from the center
Use the modified form of Kepler’s law to find the mass:
Total mass = (orbital size)3 / (orbital period)2
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The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy
Once all the galaxy is within an orbit, the velocity
should diminish with distance, as the dashed curve
shows.
It doesn’t; more than twice the mass of the galaxy
would have to be outside the visible part to
reproduce the observed curve.
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Question 7
What suggests that
the mass of our
Galaxy extends
farther than its
visible disk?
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a) 21-cm maps of the spiral arms
b) the rotation curve of the outer edges
of the Galaxy
c) orbits of open clusters in the disk
d) infrared observations of new starforming regions
e) X-ray images of other galaxies
Question 7
What suggests that
the mass of our
Galaxy extends
farther than its
visible disk?
a) 21-cm maps of the spiral arms
b) the rotation curve of the outer edges
of the Galaxy
c) orbits of open clusters in the disk
d) infrared observations of new starforming regions
e) X-ray images of other galaxies
The outer edges of the
Galaxy’s disk rotate much
faster than they should.
Most of the mass of the
Galaxy must be dark matter.
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The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy
What could this “dark matter” be? It is dark at all
wavelengths, not just the visible.
• Stellar-mass black holes?
Probably no way enough could have been
created
• Brown dwarfs, faint white dwarfs, and red dwarfs?
Currently the best star-like option
• Weird subatomic particles?
Could be, although no evidence so far
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The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy
The bending of spacetime can allow a large
mass to act as a gravitational lens:
Observation of such events suggests that
low-mass white dwarfs could account for
about half of the
mass needed.
The rest is
still a mystery.
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The Galactic Center
This is a view toward the
galactic center, in visible
light. The two arrows in the
inset indicate the location of
the center; it is entirely
obscured by dust.
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The Galactic Center
Radio
These images, in
infrared, radio,
and X ray, offer a
different view of
the galactic
center.
X-ray
Radio
Infrared
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The Galactic Center
The galactic center appears to have
• a stellar density a million times higher
than near Earth
• a ring of molecular gas 400 pc across
• strong magnetic fields
• a rotating ring or disk of matter a few
parsecs across
• a strong X-ray source at the center
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Question 8
High-speed motion
of gas and stars
near the Milky Way
Galaxy’s center is
explained by
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a) tidal forces from the Andromeda Galaxy.
b) accretion disks around neutron stars.
c) gamma-ray bursts.
d) gravitation from globular clusters.
e) a supermassive black hole.
Question 8
High-speed motion
of gas and stars
near the Milky Way
Galaxy’s center is
explained by
a) tidal forces from the Andromeda Galaxy.
b) accretion disks around neutron stars.
c) gamma-ray bursts.
d) gravitation from globular clusters.
e) a supermassive black hole.
Recent observations
estimate the black hole to be
4 million solar masses.
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The Galactic Center
Apparently, there is an enormous black hole at
the center of the galaxy, which is the source of
these phenomena.
An accretion disk surrounding the black hole
emits enormous amounts of radiation.
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The Galactic Center
These objects are very close to the galactic
center. The orbit on the right is the best fit; it
assumes a central black hole of 3.7 million solar
masses.
Evidence
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