Ch 18 Notes - Peoria Public Schools

Report
CHAPTER 18
INDUSTRY & URBAN GROWTH
CHAPTER 18 I CAN STATEMENT
I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW
INDUSTRIALIZATION INCREASED
THE SPEED OF CHANGE IN THE
UNITED STATES
Bullet points p. 637
Read pgs. 608-613
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Section1
A New Industrial Revolution
I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW
CONDITIONS IN THE U.S.
SPURRED THE GROWTH
OF INDUSTRY
ASSIGNMENT
•Do Time Line of
inventions From 1851
– 1913. Due Thursday.
At least 15 items.
TIME LINE EXAMPLE
NEW INVENTIONS & DISCOVERIES
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Bessemer Process – Steel – 1851
Oil in Pennsylvania – 1859
Sholes’ typewriter - 1868
Transcontinental RR – 1869
Bell’s telephone - 1876
Edison’s phonograph – 1877
Edison light bulb – 1879
Edison power plant – 1882
Matzeliger’s shoe making machine – 1883
1st practical auto – Benz – 1885 - Germany
Eastman’s camera – 1888
1st U.S. production car – Duryea – 1893
1st motion picture camera – Louis Lumiere – France - 1895
1st powered flight – Wright brothers – 1903
Assembly line perfected – Henry Ford 1913
Bessemer Process - 1851
Oil in Pennsylvania - 1859
Sholes’ typewriter - 1868
Transcontinental RR – 1869
Bell’s telephone - 1876
Edison’s phonograph – 1877
Edison light bulb – 1879
Edison power plant – 1882
Matzeliger’s shoe making
machine – 1883
st
1
practical auto – Benz –
1885 - Germany
Eastman’s camera – 1888
st
1
Charles – born Canton, IL
1861
U.S. production car –
Duryea – 1893
Louis Lumiere – Movie Camera
France - 1895
st
1
powered flight – Wright
brothers – 1903
Assembly line perfected –
Henry Ford 1913
Bullet points p. 637
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Read pgs. 625- 629
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Ch 18 Sec 4
The New Immigrants
• I can understand how the
experience of immigrants
was both positive and
negative
Statistics
• Between 1865 and 1915 –
25 million immigrants to
U.S.
• This is more than the U.S.
population in 1850
Reasons
• LAND
Amount of European
farmland shrinking while
populations grew
• RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
Jews from Russia
Christians from Turkey
Reasons
• POLITICAL UNREST
1910 Mexican Revolution
• JOBS
U.S. companies recruited
from overseas
Reasons
• FREEDOM
Drew people who
wanted
democracy and
liberty
Immigrant Divisions
Early 1800’s
• Most from
Northern and
Western Europe
• Most Protestant
• Spoke English
• Knew some
democracy
Late 1800’s
• From Southern or
Eastern Europe
• Most Catholic or
Jewish
• Few spoke English
• Little knowledge
of democracy
A New Life
• Difficult decision to
leave
• Miserable trip
• Most took trip in
steerage – large
compartments that
usually held cattle
Difficult Trip
• Crowded
conditions
• Little ventilation
• Sea sick
• Easy to catch
diseases
Ellis Island
• Arrivals from
Europe through
Ellis Island
• Physical
examinations
• Disabled or sick
sent back
Who Came 1865 - 1915
Where Did They Go
• 2/3 stayed in cities
Mulberry St.
Little Italy
ASSIMILATION
•
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Immigration Societies helped
Older people clung with traditions
Younger people adapted easily
Education
EDUCATION
The essence of American
opportunity, the treasure
that no thief can touch . . .
Surer, safer than bread or
butter.”
“
Naturalization
• 5 year wait (unless joined
military – then 1 year)
• Speak English
• Give up previous citizenship
• Law abiding
Naturalization
• 2 witnesses
• Not a polygamist
• Not an anarchist
• Minor children citizens when
parents are
Contributions
Contributions
Contributions
NEW FOODS
• Spaghetti
• Chow Mein
• Bagels
Famous Immigrants
• Alexander Graham Bell – Scotland
• Samuel Goldwyn – Poland
• Louis Mayer – Ukraine
• Arturo Toscanini – Italy
• Leo Baekeland - Belgium
Nativism
• The policy of protecting the interests
of native inhabitants against those of
immigrants.
• Political thought against immigrants
BECAUSE
Nativism
1. Different languages
2.
“
religions
3.
“
customs
4. Immigrants are violent
5.
“
are criminals
6.
“
are anarchists
WHAT DOES THIS SOUND LIKE?
Response
1. Chinese Exclusion
Act – 1882
2. Immigrants
required to read
and write – 1917
3. Violence against
immigrants
4. Discrimination
Bullet Points p. 637
Read pgs. 614-619
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Ch 18 Sec 2
Big Business & Organized Labor
I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW
BIG BUSINESS CHANGED
THE WORKPLACE AND
GAVE RISE TO
ORGANIZED LABOR
Ch 18 Sec 2
• Business were no longer small
shops producing goods
• Now business was factories,
employing many and
producing goods
How did they do it?
• Corporations – Businesses owned by
many people, investors.
EXAMPLE
THE MADDOX
WIDGET FACTORY
BANKING
• Banks loaned money to
corporations
• Corporations paid it back
with interest
What is interest?
Growth of Big Business
• Monopolies
Businesses that controlled all of the
business
• Example – The Maddox Widget business
owns the factory, the supplies to make
the widgets, the shipping of the widgets
and the sale of the widgets.
Examples
Andrew Carnegie
• Started in RR’s
• Gained control of
steel making
industry
• Made more steel
than all steel mills
in England
• WHAT DID HE
OWN?
EXAMPLES
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER
• Age 23, invested in an oil
refinery
• Profits bought other oil
companies
• Created many corporations
controlled by one board of
directors
• This is called a trust
• Standard Oil Co.
EXAMPLES
•Meatpacking
•Sugar refining
•Copper wire
Trusts and Monopolies
The Debate
•
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BAD
GOOD
• Threat to free
Builds the
enterprise
economy
• Unfairly eliminates
Creates jobs
competition
Keeps prices low • Corrupts
Consumers can
politicians
afford products
SOCIAL DARWINISM
• DARWINISM – Only the strongest and
best survive – Survival of the fittest
• SOCIAL DARWINISM – Only the strongest
and fittest companies survive
HOW DOES THIS AFFECT
WORKERS?
The Workplace
• Before the war, business
owners knew their
employees
• In big factories, a worker
was just a number
WORKERS
Women and Children
• Textile (clothes and garments)
industry
• Tobacco factories
• Bottle factories
• Mines
Dangerous Conditions
• Breathing dust from factories and
mines
• Molten metal burned and killed steel
workers
• NO WORKERS COMPENSATION
• Social Darwinism says survival of
the fittest keep prices down
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
• March 25, 1911, Fire
• Exit doors locked to prevent
sneaking off the job
• Firetruck ladders too short
• 150 dead – mostly women
Workers Organize
• Attempts to organize Unions
often failed
• Companies hired security guards
to attack union organizers
• Some state law prohibited strikes
Knights of Labor
• 1869 – Philadelphia –
Small secret Union
• 1879 – New leader
does not use strikes –
uses public rallies
• Admits women,
African Americans,
immigrants, unskilled
laborers
Haymarket Square
• May 4, 1886 – Bomb explosion at a
rally
• 1 police officer dead
• Police fire on Union members but kill
7 other police officers, wound 60
cops and unknown number of
civilians
• Knights of Labor lose influence
AFL
• 1886 – Samuel Gompers organizes
the American Federation of Labor
• Skilled workers only – No African
Americans or immigrants
WHY SKILLED WORKERS ONLY?
• SKILLED WORKERS ARE HARD TO
REPLACE
Collective Bargaining
• Union negotiates
with
management
• Strikes only as a
last resort
• By 1904, 1 million
members
Depression
• 1893 – Depression
- Production cut
- Workers fired
- Wages cut
• Pullman workers had pay cut 25%
but still charged the same for
housing
Pullman
• Workers go on
strike
• RR’s crippled
• President
Cleveland sends
troops to force
workers back to
work
Backlash
• Most Americans see
Unions as radical and
violent
• Only 3% of Americans in
Unions
Bullet Points p. 6137
Read pgs. 620 - 624
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Ch 18 Sec 3
Cities Grow and Change
I CAN UNDERSTAND THE
CAUSES AND EFFECTS
OF THE RAPID GROWTH
OF CITIES
Why it matters
• The new Industrial
Revolution
changed the way
Americans worked
and lived
• It also changed
where they worked
and lived
Urbanization
• 1860 – 1 in five Americans
lived in cities
• 1890 – 1 in 3 lived in cities
• Cities attracted industry
• Industry attracted people
• Fastest growing cities
near water
Growing up and out
• New Technology
1. Elevated trains
2. Electric street
cars
3. Public
transportation
4. Steel bridges
5. Skyscrapers
Living Patterns
• Poor families lived in
oldest sections
• Middle class lived
farther out, row
houses – apartment
buildings
• Upper class on edge
of city
Problems
• Fire – 1871 – Great
Chicago Fire
• Tenement life
Few windows, heat
or plumbing
Garbage
• ½ of babies died
before age 1
Improvements
• Streetlights
• Police and Fire Departments
• Public Health Departments
• Hospital – clinics
• Salvation Army
Settlement Houses
• Jane Addams – Hull House – Chicago –
1889
• Helping urban poor
1. English lessons
2. Nurseries
3. Music
4. Sports
5. Sponsored legislation to outlaw
child labor
EXCITEMENT
• Farm Life – The work is
never done
• City Life – Work for the
boss then you’re off
HOW DOES THIS FEEL??
Up every mornin’ just to keep a job
I gotta fight my way through the
hustling mob
Sounds of the city poundin’ in my
brain
While another day goes down the
drain
Tradin’ my time for the pay I get
Livin’ on money that I ain’t made
yet
I’ve been goin’ tryin’ to make my
way
While I live for the end of the day
IF THIS IS YOU, WHAT
WOULD YOU WANT?
Shopping
• Department stores
Leisure
• Museums – Museum of Natural History
Leisure
• Orchestras
• Art
Galleries
• Theatre
• Circuses
New York’s Central Park
Sports
• Baseball
1st Professional baseball team –
1869 – Cincinnati Red Stockings
Sports
• Basketball – 1891 – James Naismith
Sports
• Football
44
Ch 18 Sec 5
Education and Culture
I can understand the
causes and effects of
an expanded
educational system
Assignment
1. Read pages 632 – 635
2. Do Ch 18 Sec 5 Key Terms and
People – pg. 632
3. Do Ch 18 Sec 5 Graphic
Organizer
4. Quiz Tuesday
Ch 18 Sec 5
Education and Culture
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Before 1870, < ½ of children went to school
1852 – Mass. 1st compulsory education law
Most Northern states required education
Many Southern states did not require
education
WHY??
• An industrialized society needs
educated workers
High School
• LOOK AT CHART
ON PAGE 633
• Most states
required 10th
grade education
• Not until 1950 did
over ½ of
students graduate
Writers
• Dime novels –
Wild West stories
• Realists – Show
life as it is
Jack London
Stephen Crane
Mark Twain
• Real Name –
Samuel Clemens
Huckleberry Finn
Tom Sawyer
Newspapers
• By 1900 ½ of worlds papers were
printed in U.S.
• Newspapers linked to Urbanization
• Joseph Pulitzer created first modern
newspaper
• Cut price of New York World –
WHY??
Newspapers
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Sensational headlines
Crime – scandal
Pictures
Faked interviews
Full color comics

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