- Defense GameTech Users

Report
Bringing Educational Games
to the Classroom
Command and General Staff College
Agenda:
Future Force – Concrete Experience
Design & Development
Use Case Examples / Results of P/D/I
Demonstration of CGSC’s Simulation Tools
Decisive Action
Crucible of Command
Why use Experiential Games in Classroom
CGSC’s Vision for classroom simulations
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Future Force Demo
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Design Concepts
Students input their plans
Subordinates execute to standard
Realism is not always useful
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Development Concepts
• Design Framework:
Purpose, Decisions, Interactions
• Focus design on educational objectives:
Student decisions’ essential dilemmas
• Ruthless abstraction:
Eliminate unnecessary detail
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Division Exercise Configuration
XX
4
Exercise Cells
MAIN
OPFOR
FIRES
PROT
PLANS
WHITE CELL
INTEL
HICON
MNVR & MVMT
MC
16x
SUST
CFLCC / JTF / DoS
BLUFOR
CLOSED Partition
CofS
Hallway
OPEN Partition
ILE Section – 64 Students
Division Staff – 47 students
(only uses CPoF and BCS3)
HICON – 4 students
(only uses CPoF)
BLUEFOR – 8 students
(4 hours sim training)
White Cell / Host – 2 students
(12 hrs Cr + 12hrs Hw = 24 hours sim training)
OPFOR – 3 students
(4 hours
training)
United
Statessim
Army
Combined Arms Center
Decisive Action
Basic Facts
• Staff-Centric, Division & Corps MCO
• Tracks battalions and higher
• Turn-Based (2 hour turns)
• Multiplayer or single-player
• Abstracted Combat
Pros
• Easy to learn
• Works on any Windows-based system
• Easy link to CPOF through XML Overlay
• Easy scenario development/changes
Cons
• Needs more reports
Why Execution Matters for Army Learning Model
CGSC’s experiential learning process uses execution to ensure that
students practice decisions as commanders and key staff officers
• The three categories of classroom exercises:
 Visualization: Examine problems and discuss solutions (examples: “What Now, Ranger”,
USMC Tactical Decision Games)
 Planning-Centric: Requires the student to organize the battlefield through functions, tasks,
and resources over time. Ends with a written product ( example OPORD).
 Execution-Centric: Requires students to gain situational awareness during mission
execution. Students must analyze the unfolding situation, decide what changes must be
made, and then execute that decision.
-----------------Supports Army Learning Model 2015 ------------------
Crucible of Command
Basic Facts
• Company level tactics
• Tracks entities, maneuvers platoons
• Continuous time (pauseable)
• Multiplayer or single-player
• High intensity combat
Email
TLP
Execute
Homework
AAR
Class
Pros
• Easy to learn
• Easy map/scenario creation and adjustment
• Low-overhead
• AAR playback
• Email AAR file as homework to instructor
• Smart Tactics capabilities in development
Cons
Pending pilot assessment
CGSC DLDC’s
Vision for Classroom Simulations
• Transform the way we train adaptive leaders and teams by
facilitating the deliberate practice of key cognitive skills
anytime and anyplace
• Close the gap between textbook (crawl) and fieldwork (Run)
using experiential learning
• Each student engaged in making relevant decisions
• Simulations everywhere . . . like textbooks
Simulations used routinely to gain and maintain cognitive
skills
• Recognize that intuitional learning environment is different
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Current Simulations in use at CGSC
Decisive Action (ILE Division Level Exercise)
 Staff-centric, turn based MCO
 Stimulates Mission Command Workstation (CPOF)
 Drives ILE O399 in all staff groups
UrbanSIM (SCP TCDP, ILE Elective)
 BCT & Bn commander-centric Stability Operations
Elusive Victory (ILE BCT Level Exercise)
 Staff-centric, turn-based Stability Operations
Piloted as driver for ILE 0499
Crucible of Command (Captain’s Career Course)
 Commander / Leader Centric
Battalion and Company tactics
 Email AAR file as homework to instructor
Decisive Action Brigade Level (Captain’s Career Course)
 Staff-centric, turn based MCO, Brigade and Battalion
 Stimulates Mission Command Workstation (CPOF)
Bite-Sized Games (Concrete Experience drivers)
 Future Force; Forward into Battle; Fuelling the Force
 5-10 minutes to learn; Individual/small group execution
15-120 min duration
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Enabling Experiential Education in CGSC Classrooms
A Battle in Every Classroom
Back up slides
Current Simulations in use at CGSC
Decisive Action (ILE Division Level Exercise)
 Staff-centric, turn based MCO
 Stimulates Mission Command Workstation (CPOF)
 Drives ILE O399 in all staff groups
UrbanSIM (SCP TCDP, ILE Elective)
 BCT & Bn commander-centric Stability Operations
Elusive Victory (ILE BCT Level Exercise)
 Staff-centric, turn-based Stability Operations
Piloted as driver for ILE 0499
Crucible of Command (Captain’s Career Course)
 Commander / Leader Centric
Battalion and Company tactics
 Email AAR file as homework to instructor
Decisive Action Brigade Level (Captain’s Career Course)
 Staff-centric, turn based MCO, Brigade and Battalion
 Stimulates Mission Command Workstation (CPOF)
Bite-Sized Games (Concrete Experience drivers)
 Future Force; Forward into Battle; Fuelling the Force
 5-10 minutes to learn; Individual/small group execution
15-120 min duration
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Follow Me
Basic Facts
• Company & lower tactics
• Tracks entities, maneuvers by team/squad
• Continuous time (pauseable)
• Multiplayer or single-player
• High intensity combat
Email
TLP
Execute
Homework
AAR
Pros
• Easy to learn
• Easy map/scenario creation and adjustment
• Low-overhead
• AAR playback
• Email AAR file as homework to instructor
• Smart Tactics capabilities in development
Cons
*****
Class
Insert another screen shot
Of a town
DEMO
UrbanSim
Basic Facts
• Commander-centric Stability Ops
• Developed for BN CO training at SCP
• Current scenarios are designed for BN
• Environment modeled with leaders, tribes,
areas, and key infrastructure buildings
Pros
• Easy to learn
• Includes background and support
videos and text for scenarios
• Models second and third order
effects in stability ops environment
Cons
• Difficult to create scenarios
• No run-time instructor injects or editing
• Each scenario has limited potential for
repeated use
Elusive Victory
Basic Facts
• Staff-centric Stability Ops
• Designed for battalion/brigade echelon
• Environment modeled with leaders,
areas, and abstract infrastructure
• One week turns
• Very limited C4I stimulation
Pros
• Powerful run time editing/inject tools
• Simple model is predictable for instructor
• Includes full scenario editing tools
Cons
• Software is still in development
• Model is not complete
Command Post on Web / Defense Connect on Line
Basic Facts
• Distance Learning map exercise environment
• CPoW provides dynamic COP of data from
simulation
• CPoW uses Google Maps for terrain data:
 no installation
• DCO allows video/audio/text communications
and file sharing
Pros
• Easy to learn
• Enables exercise participation for dL
• CPoW works with standard web browser
Cons
• Requires Sims Team to process (will be
automated soon; target June 2010)
• Internet connectivity can go down
DEMO
W330 Employ the BCT
TLO
701-AOW-2303
Action: Employ
BCTs in Full
spectrum
operations.
ELO
Key Content
Assessment
701-AOW-2303-1
Action: Develop
BCT Operations
Order
701-AOW-2303-2
Action: Develop
FRAGOs based on
changes in the
tactical situation
•BCT MDMP in a
stability environment.
•BCT development of
Lines of Operations.
•BCT Synchronization
of Warfighting
functions
•BCT Rapid Decision
and Synchronization
Process.
•BCT Irregular Warfare
Challenges
Individual
Commander’s Intent
15%
Group BCT OPORD
Brief 15%
Group BCT FRAGO
briefs (RDSP) 15%
Individual staff
performance 15%
Position
The Deputy Commander
has the authority to
Deputy Cdr
reorg the staff if needed
Name
WFF
J-Dawg
C2
Red Team
Dennis
C2
S2
Steve
ISR
Asst S2
Naeem
ISR
Asst S2
Hedderwick (IN)
ISR
S3
Ken
Mov/Man
Asst S3
Forsth (AR)
Mov/Man
Asst S3
Kirk
Protection
FSO
Ben
Fires
Asst FSO
Young (FA)
Fires
Non-Lethal - CA
Brady
Fires
Non-Lethal - IO
Reeve (EN)
Fires
Non-Lethal - IO
Isaac
Fires
S4
Syd
Sust
S1
Jason
Sust
Red Cell
Monica
N/A
Building Experiential Tools for our Classrooms
Discussion Points
• Tool Selection / Design Process: Purpose / Decisions / Interactions
–
–
–
–
–
Step 1 – Purpose: Define educational outcomes (TLO & ELO)
Step 2 – Decisions: What student actions are evaluated by the instructor?
Step 3 – Interactions: What the simulation does that creates the decision environment
Step 4 – Identify limitations: time, space, equipment, manpower
Step 5 – THEN select or build the tool that creates the environment, that creates the
decisions, that drives the learning
 Concept – build the tools for the task, don’t bend the task to the tool
 Concept – the tool doesn’t define the outcome
• Considerations for Low Overhead Tools
– Able to operate on classroom computers
– Able to train student “puckers” < 1/10th of lesson duration
– LVC IA compliance and Federation capability create unnecessary overhead
Slide 5
Bite-Sized Games
Basic Facts
• Highly focused standalone sims
• Targeted on specific courses
• Extremely abstract to focus on key decisions
• Individual/small group execution
• Execution takes 15-120 minutes
• Examples: Future Force (force management
and budgeting), Forward into Battle (RSOI)
Pros
• Learn in <10 minutes
• Works on any Windows-based system in gov
inventory
• Cheap, fast, good enough
Cons
• Targeted abstractions limit flexibility and range
of use (inherent tradeoff for focus & ease of use)
Simulations at the Command & General Staff College
MCO
FSO
IW
Commander-centric
Staff-centric
Small group/individual execution
<1 hour to learn
More abstracted
Focus on decisions
Section/Staff Group execution
<4 hours to learn
More detailed
Drives staff process and decisions
Command
Ops
Decisive Action
IW simulations turn out to be either MCO
with SASO flavor or SASO with MCO flavor
depending on the desired timescale
and primary interactions
Stability
Ops
UrbanSim
Elusive Victory
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Bite-Sized Games
Concrete Experience drivers
5-10 minutes to learn
Individual/small group execution
Last 15-120 minutes
The Long War
Future Force
RSOI
Fuel Distribution
Road March Game?
The Somme Game?
1930s Navy Game?
Joint Fires Game?
Leadership Games?
Agenda – How To Deliver Experiential Education
•
•
•
•
•
Why Experiential Games in the Classroom
CGSC’s Vision
Concept of Development
Use Case Examples / Results of P/D/I
Demonstration of CGSC’s Simulation Tools
– Decisive Action
– Future Force (Bite Size Game)
– Crucible of Command
United States Army Combined Arms Center
CGSC - Enabling Experiential Education in ILE Classrooms
Vision - A Battle in Every Classroom

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