Mike Martino - Association of American Railroads

Report
Crossings for the 21st Century
Michael Martino
Senior Director Operation
Association of American Railroads
Standing Committee on Rail Transportation
Washington, D.C.
March 14, 2011
Crossings for the 21st Century
• Safety Statistics & Trends
– Grade Crossing Safety
– Trespassers
• Next Steps
U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics:
Main Themes
• Railroads have dramatically improved safety over the
last three decades.
• Railroads compare favorably with other industries &
transportation modes.
• The most troubling railroad safety problems arise
from factors largely outside railroad control.
• Railroads implemented numerous and effective
technological improvements and company-wide safety
programs.
U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics:
In 2010, U.S. railroads again achieved their safest
year ever by the following major safety yardsticks:
• Train Accidents and Accident Rates, down 3%
and 9%, respectively, from 2009.
• Employee Casualties and Casualty Rates, down
4% and 5%, respectively, from 2009.
• Grade Crossing Collision Rates, down 2% from
2009.
Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/officeofsafety/publicsite/summary.aspx
(2010 data)
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2009, Tables 1-1, 1-2.
FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1975-1996, Tables 1, 51.
In 2010, over 95% of rail-related fatalities were
grade crossing users and trespassers.
Trespassers: 451
(60.5%)
Grade Crossing
Users: 260
(34.9%)
Passengers: 3
Employees: 20
Others: 12
Source: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/OfficeofSafety/publicsite/summary.aspx
(2010 data).
Grade crossing collisions declined 81% since 1980
and 43% since 2000.
12,000
10,611
10,000
8,000
6,000
3,502
5,715
4,000
2,004
2,000
0
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2009
Sources: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/officeofsafety/publicsite/summary.aspx (2010 data).
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2009, Table 1-1.
FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table S.
Notes: Includes collisions involving pedestrians. Includes collisions at private crossings.
Grade crossing fatalities have declined 69% since
1980 and 39% since 2000.
1,000
833
800
698
600
425
400
261
200
0
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Sources: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/officeofsafety/publicsite/summary.aspx (2010 data).
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2009, Tables 1-1, 1-3.
FRA, Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table S.
Note: Includes pedestrians, employees, passengers, and collisions at private crossings.
Grade crossing injuries have declined
79% since 1980 and 34% since 2000.
4,000
3,890
3,000
2,407
2,000
1,219
1,000
810
0
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Sources: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/officeofsafety/publicsite/summary.aspx (2010 data).
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2009, Tables 1-1, 1-3.
FRA, Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table S.
Note: Includes pedestrians, employees, passengers, and collisions at private crossings.
Freight Car Reflectors May be Reducing Collisions
at Dark Crossings.
150
125
100
75
50
25
Reflector-Preventable Grade Crossing Collisions,
Passive Crossings Only, in the Dark
19
85
19
87
19
89
19
91
19
93
19
95
19
97
19
99
20
01
20
03
20
05
20
07
20
09
0
Source: AAR Analysis of FRA Highway-Rail Incident Database, 1985-2010.
Excludes Passenger Railroads and Passenger Trains.
Rule became effective in March 2005.
Since 1980, the total number of public crossings has declined
36%, while the number with gates has increased over 150%.
250,000
36% Decrease
200,000
Passive 75%
150,000
Passive 53%
100,000
50,000
Lights 17%
Gates 8%
Lights 17%
Gates 30%
0
1980
2009
Sources: AAR Analysis of March 2009 FRA Grade Crossing Inventory Database.
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2009, Table 9-3.
FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980, Table 46.
Grade crossing warning device upgrades work. Gates cut the
accident & fatality rates by 93%.
Grade Crossing Collisions per Billion Collision Opportunities
296
300
250
200
No Injury
Injury
Fatal
150
63
100
21
50
0
Passive
Flashing Lights
Gates
Source: AAR Analysis of FRA Grade Crossing Incident & Inventory Databases,
using 1999-2003 incident data and the December 2003 inventory data.
Note: Collision opportunities are measured here as the average number of trains per hour multiplied
by the average number of vehicles per hour moving over each crossing. It is useful primarily
as a measure of relative, not absolute, exposure, since the time period (hour) is arbitrary.
Grade crossing collisions are usually caused by
motorist error.
Stopped,
Proceeded
98
7%
Stopped on Tracks:
416 (28%)
Other 189 (9%)
Did Not Stop
586 (39%)
Drove Around
Gate: 206 (14%)
Sources: AAR Analysis of Highway-Rail Incident Database for 2009 (August 2010).
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2009, Table 8-6.
Note: Motor vehicle highway-rail incidents at public crossings.
Trespasser fatalities continue to be a significant
safety problem.
1,200
Total Trespasser Incidents
900
600
463
427
300
457
543
Trespasser Fatalities
0
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Sources: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/officeofsafety/publicsite/summary.aspx (2010 data).
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2009, Tables 1-2, 10-3.
FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 13.
Note: Excludes "trespasser" fatalities at grade crossings.
89% of trespasser fatalities in 2009 resulted from
being struck by trains or freight cars.
Train Accidents 5
Other 45
Struck by On-Track
Equipment 393
Source: AAR Analysis of FRA Casualty Database for 2009 as of August 2010.
FRA, RR Safety Statistics Annual Report 2009, Table 10-10.
Note: Excludes "trespasser" fatalities at grade crossings.
Many Trespassers are Killed While Intoxicated.
• A North Carolina study for the period 1990-1994 found that
78% of 128 trespassers killed on railroad property were
intoxicated. The median blood alcohol level for this group was
2.5 times the legal limit.
• A 1994 South Carolina study of 24 train-related pedestrian
fatalities found that 79% were intoxicated.
• Toxicology results on 78 of 132 railroad trespassers killed in
Georgia in the period 1990-1996 found 40 (51%) with alcohol
levels above 100 mg/dL.
• A 2005 survey of coroners and Chief Medical Examiners found
that alcohol and/or drugs were judged to be a factor in 530
(57%) of 929 trespasser fatalities in the period 2002-2004 for
which the additional data could be obtained.
Sources: Andrew Pelletier, MD, "Deaths Among Railroad Trespassers: The Role of Alcohol in Fatal Injuries,”
Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 277, No. 13, April 2, 1997, pp. 1064-66.
Center for Disease Control, Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 48, No. 25, July 2, 1999.
Bruce George, “Rail Trespasser Fatalities: Developing Demographic Profiles,” presentation to Transportation
Research Board Annual Meeting, January 15, 2008.
Next Step
Emergency Notification Signage
International Awareness Day
Thank you
Questions

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