Intro to Rail Transportation 2

Report
CE 533 Introduction to Rail Transportation (2)
 Railroads were America’s





First Large Corporations
Had a Monopoly on
Transportation
Heavily Regulated until
1970s/1980s
U.S. Railroads Privately Owned
U.S. Railroads are Primarily Freight
U.S. Rail Passenger Service is Heavily Subsidized
by the Public
Introduction
• Adequate Transportation System
• Efficient Movement of Goods and People
• Provides No Basic Intrinsic Value
• Provides “Value Added”
• Necessary for Economy and Development
Early Modes of Transportation in the U.S.
•
•
•
•
•
Waterways
Crude Roads
Rivers/Canals 1700’s
Railroads 1830
Better Roads
Trucks/Automobiles early
1920’s
• Air – Passengers 1950s
• Interstates
Trucks/Automobiles early
1960s
• Railroads 2000s!!!
Current Modes of Transportation in the
U.S.
• Highway Trucks
• Waterways
• Pipeline
• Airways
• Conveyor
Belts
• Railways
Why is railroad freight transport so important now,
and even more so in the future?
• Lets consider the alternatives for inland transport:
truck, water, air, pipeline, conveyor belt
5
Waterways Pros and Cons
• Pros: Energy efficiency, low cost, low pollution, safety, capacity
• Cons: Speed, limited network
6
Highway Truck Pros and Cons
•
Pros: Speed, reliability, network coverage
•
Cons: Energy efficiency, safety, land use, pollution, cost, congestion (because of shared
use of infrastructure truck transport affects auto safety and congestion as well)
How many truckloads can
a railcar carry?
7
Airways Pros and Cons
 Pros: Speed,
reliability,
network
coverage
 Cons: Energy
efficiency,
cost, limited
volume
Pipelines and Conveyor Belts
• Pros: High volume, continuous transport possible, no vehicles needed,
low labor requirements
• Cons: Highly constrained types of commodities, limited product
flexibility, speed and network
9
Rail uniquely
combines
speed and
energy
efficiency
*Plus
environmentally
Friendly
10
Rail is the principal means of economically
moving large, heavy freight long distances overland
Freight
11
North American freight transportation
volume by mode
Billions of Ton-Miles
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Rail
Truck
Truck
Pipeline
Pipeline Waterways
Waterways
Source: AAR from Eno Foundation for Transportation
Air
Air
2000
1800
Revenue Ton-Miles (billions)
1600
US rail freight traffic
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
Year
1980
1990
2000
2005
2008
Common Goals & Functions of the Railroad
Industry
• The movement of Freight • Characteristics
and People in the most
– Fast
efficient manner possible
– Reliable
• Principal Function in U.S.
– Convenient
– Hauling Freight (~43+%)
–
–
–
–
Economical
Safe/Secure
Fuel Efficient
Environmentally Friendly
• Renewed Interest in
Passenger Rail
Early Regulations
 Land Grants (1850-1870)
 Business Transactions
 Development of Central and
Western U.S.
 Repaid
 Interstate Commerce Commission (1887)
 Surface Transportation Board (1995-1996)
Recent Significant Legislation
• Phase 1:
– 1971 Amtrak
– 1983 RRB / Depreciation
• Phase 2:
– 1973 3R Act
– 1976 4R Act
– 1980 Staggers (Deregulation)
• Phase 3:
–
–
–
–
–
1992 ISTEA
1998 T21
2004 SAFETEA-LU
2008 Safety Improvements
2010 Surface Transportation
Assistance Act
The Fundamental Principle of
Rail Transport - EFFICIENCY
Implications for Economics,
Energy & Environment
or
Why Rail Transport is More Important Than
Ever!
18
US 20th Century was about
CONVENIENCE
The 21st must consider
EFFICIENCY as well
•
•
Then
– Abundant: energy, land, natural
resources and labor
Now
– Diminishing resources:
• Energy
• Air quality
• Water
• Land
– Congestion
• Need more efficient use of
transportation infrastructure
– Stronger global competition
19
RESISTANCE (lbs./ton)
Speed and Resistance by Transport Mode
Boat
Airplanes
Trucks
Rail uniquely combines
High Speed and Low Resistance
SPEED (mph)
20
Lower coefficient of rolling friction (μR)
• Steel wheel on steel rail has lower rolling friction (μR)
than rubber tire on pavement:
– Steel wheel on rail: μR = 0.001
– Truck tire on pavement: μR = 0.006 to 0.010
– Tire is 6 to 10 times greater than steel wheel
– Consequently lower rolling resistance
• But why…?
• Rubber tire
– Small effects of static friction and adhesion of the
rubber
– Major factor is the deformation of the tire while
rolling under load
– Pavement deflection also contributes
• Steel wheel and rail experience elastic deformation
under load as well, but much less
21
Energy efficiency truck vs. rail
•
How far can each mode transport a given amount of
freight for a given amount of energy?
•
Specifically, how far can we transport one ton
of freight with one gallon of diesel fuel?
Rail is over 3 times
more efficient than truck
(AAR & FRA data)
22
Automotive Energy Efficiency
Assume:
• 200 lb person
• Drives 100 miles
• Auto gets 25 mpg
Rail=480 ton-miles/gallon
Truck=120 ton-miles/gallon
Railroad transportation efficiency
• Railroads produce “output”
more efficiently than their
principal competition: trucks
• What is transportation “output”
– Ton miles
– Passenger miles
• Why are railroads so efficient?
– Low rolling friction
– Large size
– Trains
24
Larger Size of rail vehicles permits
economies of scale
• Strong railroad infrastructure
allows larger, heavier vehicles than
is practical for highways
• Permits economies of scale
– Larger vehicles can transport
more weight with less
resistance per unit
– Larger engines can convert
energy to work more efficiently
25
•
“Trains” permit two more important
economies of scale
The ability to operate many vehicles coupled together permits two substantial
economies of scale
– Labor: one or two people can operate a single train with 100 to 150 cars (or
more). Considering that each railcar is roughly equivalent to three trucks, the
economies are substantial.
– Energy: close spacing of cars in train substantially reduces aerodynamic
resistance compared to trucks. This effect is particularly important at higher
speeds (> 40mph)
26
One “E” leads to three
• Rail efficiency leads to three fundamental elements of railroad importance
to society
• All are important now but there is a chronology to our understanding of
these
– Economics: rail transport was and is less expensive than its
competition, therefore critical to a competitive economy
– Energy: efficient use of fuel was always part of rail’s economic
efficiency, but energy scarcity enhances this aspect
– Environment: fewer emissions and land use required per unit of
transportation output means rail is part of the quest for sustainability
27
Rail Transport is Economical
• This was the original motivation for development of railroads
• Before rail there was no practical way to move heavy goods long
distances overland unless there was a navigable river or a canal was built
• Low cost transport CREATES markets for both goods and people
• Permits development of large, complex, economies with diverse products
and skills
28
Rail Transport is Energy Efficient
Transportation Energy Use
by Mode 2002
Federal Highway Administration
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/aqfactbk/page13.htm#alt2
Normalized Comparison by
Transport Mode
http://www.shipsandboxes.com/eng/keytopics/environment/
29
Projected energy consumption by
sector
• Transportation is the second largest consumer of energy
• Largest consumer of petroleum
30
Rail transport is more environmentally sustainable
•
Transportation is responsible for a substantial
portion of air pollution
•
Greater energy efficiency of rail corresponds
with reduced emissions of noxious pollutants
and CO2
•
Growing concern about the importance of
greenhouse gas emissions, and air pollution in
general, means that rail’s importance as a less
polluting form of transport will increase
•
Substantial R&D on locomotive technology
over the past 20 years has substantially
reduced locomotive emissions
•
Technology for electric motive power is mature
and used widely elsewhere in the world.
Presently not economic in US but if petroleum
scarcity or environmental concerns require it,
the transition is possible without substantial
new technology development
Carbon Emissions by Sector 2002
Railroad Electrifications Proposals
in the 1970s
31
Rail transport requires less land per unit of
transport
•
Transportation output per unit of land is
considerably greater for rail compared to
highway
•
More units per vehicle (tons or people)
•
Fewer vehicles, and they are consolidated into
trains
•
Easier to accommodate temporal differences
in directional traffic
32
Rail transport benefits due to these efficiencies:
but exploiting them imposes constraints as well
•
Infrastructure design - Heavy loads and high speeds demands particularly robust
infrastructure system design and components
•
Vehicle design - Large, heavy vehicles capable of supporting their own weight plus
lading, and also very large in-train “buff” & “draft” forces
•
Infrastructure and equipment cost - Large size and strength of infrastructure
makes it expensive and capital intensive
•
Trains - Require standardization of many aspects of design, this combined with
their high cost means there is a need for long life, thereby imposing reverse
compatibility constraints on new technology
•
Traffic control system - High speeds and mass of trains, combined with low
coefficient of friction at wheel/rail interface means stopping distances are very
long, often longer than sight distance
•
Small markets - Ironically, in some important aspects railroads suffer because
they cannot exploit economies of scale, e.g. long life and small market for
locomotives means it is hard to justify investment in new tooling as technology
advances
33
Benefits to the Environment
• 1 Train = 1 ton of freight carried 435
miles on 1 gallon of diesel fuel
(86% improvement since 1980)
• 1 Train = 280 truckloads
• 1 Train = 3 to 4 times more fuel efficient
than trucks
Rail vs. Truck
• During the last four years, there has been
a fundamental shift in the competitive
environment between rail and truck
• Shift primarily due to:
–
–
–
–
Increased fuel costs
Congestion on highway system
Reduced hours of service for truck drivers
Driver shortages
• Shift appears to be permanent
Revenue Effect of 1% Shift
in Truck Industry
Trucking
-1%
$623 billion industry
$623b
1% shift in trucking
revenue market share
to rail.
+13 %
$48b
Trucking
Data Source: AAR, ATA
Rail
Railroads
$48 billion industry
1% shift of trucking's
revenue to rail
Top-line growth of 13% for railroads
($6.2 billion)
Increased Public Interest in Rail
 Increased awareness of rail as a solution to
congestion, pollution, and fuel inefficiency
 Increased motivation to invest public money in
rail infrastructure
 Heartland
 CREATE
 Green Power
(Locomotives)
 I81
Genset and Hybrid Switchers
In the last 20 years…
• Vehicle travel increased 78%
• Road miles increased only 1%
Traffic congestion costs the U.S. $67 billion annually
Congested Highway Segments - 1998
Potential Congested Segments - 2020
Summary
 Rail Industry is growing
 Rail has become a viable alternative to truck
 Spike in Public Interest due to
Highway congestion
Population growth
Environmental issues
 Significant investment required to accommodate
growth for freight and passenger
Broad set of safety
concerns for railroads
• Safety of passengers, employees,
infrastructure, rolling stock, hazardous
materials, operations, highway vehicles,
pedestrians and communities
52
SAFETY FIRST! Railroads have fostered a strong safety culture among
operating employees for nearly a century
•
•
•
Dates to the “Safety First” movement of the early decades of the 20th century
Railroads continuously stress safety in and out of the workplace
Bureau of Labor Statistics data support the railroads’ safety record
•
Railroads also have regular, ongoing training schools and programs for operating
personnel
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