V-Shaped valleys and Interlocking Spurs. V-Shaped Valleys • V- Shaped Valleys are found in the upper course of the river, where water flows quickly through a narrow channel with a steep gradient. V-Shaped Valley formation. 1. The river erodes downwards (vertical erosion). Boulders, stones, rock particles are scraped along the channel bed, creating steep valley sides. 2. Over time, as the river cuts down, steep sides are attacked by weathering (breakdown of rocks, soils and minerals). This breaks up and loosens the soil and rock. 3. Gradually the loosened materials move down the valley sides creating the V-Shape 4. The river then transports the materials away. The end result is a steep sided valley that has the shape of a letter V. The river cuts down and deepens its valley. The river widens its valley as it deepens it. The river continues to widen its valley. Interlocking Spurs • Spurs are ridges of hard rock, which a river is forced to wind around as it passes downstream in the upper course as is cannot erode the hard rock. • Interlocking spurs are formed when the river is forced to swing side to side around the spurs of hard rock which interlock as you look at the river.