V-Shaped valleys and Interlocking Spurs

V-Shaped valleys and
Interlocking Spurs.
V-Shaped Valleys
• V- Shaped Valleys are found in the upper
course of the river, where water flows quickly
through a narrow channel with a steep
V-Shaped Valley formation.
1. The river erodes downwards (vertical erosion). Boulders,
stones, rock particles are scraped along the channel bed,
creating steep valley sides.
2. Over time, as the river cuts down, steep sides are attacked
by weathering (breakdown of rocks, soils and minerals). This
breaks up and loosens the soil and rock.
3. Gradually the loosened materials move down the valley
sides creating the V-Shape
4. The river then transports the materials away. The end result
is a steep sided valley that has the shape of a letter V.
The river cuts down
and deepens its
The river widens its
valley as it deepens
The river continues to
widen its valley.
Interlocking Spurs
• Spurs are ridges of hard rock, which a river is
forced to wind around as it passes downstream in
the upper course as is cannot erode the hard
• Interlocking spurs are formed when the river is
forced to swing side to side around the spurs of
hard rock which interlock as you look at the river.

similar documents