the gamification of education - Teaching with Technology

Report
THE GAMIFICATION OF
EDUCATION
By
Miary
Andriamiarisoa
June 2014
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 OUTLINE
 Introduction
 Definition
 Global Context
 Gamification Misconceptions
 Gamification Implementation Workflow
 Conclusion
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 DEFINITION
 The craft of deriving all the fun and addictive elements found in
games and applying them to real-world or productive activities (Yukai Chou)
 A series of design principles, processes and systems used to
influence, engage and motivate individuals, groups and communities
to drive behaviors and effect desired outcomes (Wang, R. December 2011.
Demystifying Enterprise Gamification for Business . Constellation Research) .
 Gamification is using game-based mechanics, aesthetics, and game
thinking to engage people, motivate action, promote learning, and
solve problems. Kapp, Karl M. (2012). The Gamification of Learning and
Instruction: Game-based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education (p. 11)
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 GLOBAL CONTEXT
 28 million people harvest their crops
on FarmVille everyday
 67% of American households play
computer or video games, spending a
total of $20.77 billion in 2012
 3 billion hours a week are spent on
playing video and computer games
on planet earth
 World wide video and computer
game industry, which is valued at
over $105 billion
 The average video game player has been playing games for over twelve
years. The majority of our students grew up playing
(video/arcade/computer) games
 Today, 26% of people playing games are over fifty (vs. 9% in 1999)
 Volkswagen, The Fun Theory, Musical stairs versus escalators
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 The Musical Stairs
Once implemented, 66% of people chose to use the musical stairs
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 EXPLOSIVE GROW TH
 More than 50% of organizations that manage innovation process will
gamify those processes within the next decade ( Gartner Group, April 2011 )
 Overall market for gamification is predicted to grow to $1.6 billion,
up from a reported $100 million in 2012
 Within the next five years, a gamified service for consumer goods
marketing and customer retention will become as important as
Facebook, Twitter, or Amazon
 Note: these societal forces are greatly influencing the future of
learning in Higher Education
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 GAMIFICATION MISCONCEPTIONS: What gamification IS NOT
 A novelty. A 7 th -century game with a fictional battlefield including
foot soldiers, elephants, and chariots ( Bepi Entertainment. A brief history
wargaming. www.faculty.virginia.edu/setear/students/wargames/page1a.htm ).
Modern examples: frequent flyer miles, reward system, Citicard
Thank-You system, etc…
of
 About Badges, Points, and Rewards. It is about engagement,
storytelling, visualization of characters, and problem solving
 Trivialization of learning. Gamification is a serious approach to
accelerating the experience curve of the learning, teaching complex
subjects, and systems thinking (Kapp, Karl M. p. 13)
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 GAMIFICATION MISCONCEPTIONS: What gamification IS NOT
 Easy to design. A systematic approach is required to effectively build
an impactful educational game
 Perfect for Every Learning Situation
 Not effective for some learning content
 Not always the right tool to maximize learning
 Not a magic bullet to eliminate boredom.
 Game-based learning. First and foremost about the game and its
cognitive residue (Example: Civilization V, Fate of the World)
 Playing. The simple introduction of a goal adds purpose, focus, and
measurable outcomes. This, in turn, transform playing into gaming
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 GAMIFICATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION
 The term “gamification” is of fairly recent coinage , however the use of
game elements to teach is certainly not new
 The newness of this old idea lies in the rapidly growing acceptance of
game thinking and game mechanics
 Proliferation of mobile platforms & advancements in mobile technology
expand opportunities for game-play, allowing participants to engage any
time from any place.
 When applied to performance, learning, and instruction, this societal
movement (wide adoption & proliferation of gaming) is forcing a reexamination of how games impact learning and performance
 Gamification of learning using technology has extremely strong support:
several grants from Next Generation Learning Challenges and the Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 GAMIFICATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION
 Pepperdine University Business School: Web-based gamification tool
called Veri, which includes leaderboard for competition, multiple
levels, testing components
 Course Hero: gamified course-creation tools, coursehero.com
 Penn State University, Economics, ‘Who Wants to be a Millionaire’
 Excelsior College, Center for Game and Simulation -based Learning
 University of Minnesota’s School of Nursing. Partnership with
technology company to develop web-based interactive games that
engage nursing students with real-life scenarios
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 GAMIFICATION IMPLEMENTATION WORKFLOW
Define Contexts
Define Learning
Objectives
Structure the
Experience
Apply Gamification
Elements
Identify Resources
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 WORKFLOW: DEFINE CONTEXT
 DEFINE LEARNING CONTEXT
 Design gaming platform to be used individually or as a group
 To be used in a supervised/controlled environment (classroom, breakout
rooms) or remotely (off campus)
 To be counted as optional activities, prerequisite, learning reinforcement
tool, study aid, graded, extra credits
 DEFINE LEARNER CONTEXT
 Define possible ‘pain points’ (factors that prevent a student from
advancing through the learning program and/or achieving the objectives)
 Example: poor quality of assignments submitted could be due to
 Delivery method (student is a visual learner while course was delivered orally)
 Low motivation (assignment didn’t count towards final grade)
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 WORKFLOW: DEFINE LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 Identify goals to be achieved through the gamification process
 Clearly state mastery level students will reach after completion
of the game:
 Avoid generalization such as ‘comfortable with’ learning
component.
 Instead, quantify learning level such as, ‘memorize and know the
top 200 pharmaceutical drugs.’
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 WORKFLOW: STRUCTURE THE EXPERIENCE
 Sequence knowledge and quantify what students need to learn
and achieve by the end of each stage or milestone
 Translate knowledge sequences into Game Levels
 Categorize and group learning components
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 WORKFLOW: IDENTIFY RESOURCES (1 of 2)
 Sequenced learning material from content expert—the
instructor
 Aesthetic and game-building components (usually 3D
assets)
 Identify tracking mechanism to measure student progress
 Define what determines the accomplishment of a level
 Define currency (points, time)
 Determine game rules
 Define a feedback mechanism for both the instructor and
students
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 WORKFLOW: IDENTIFY RESOURCES (2 of 2)
 Aesthetic and game-building components (usually 3D
assets)
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 WORKFLOW: APPLY GAMIFICATION ELEMENTS
 Gamification is the addition of game-like-elements, also called
game mechanics, in non-game settings
 Two types of game mechanics:
Self-elements
Social-elements
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 WORKFLOW: APPLY GAMIFICATION ELEMENTS
Self-elements
 Points
 Achievement badges
 Levels
 Time restrictions
Self-elements help students compete with themselves and
recognize self-achievement
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 WORKFLOW: APPLY GAMIFICATION ELEMENTS
Social-elements
 Interactive competition (use of Leaderboards)
 Group work or cooperation
 Social-elements put the students in a community
with other students, and their progress and
achievements are made public (without violating
FERPA rules)
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 WORKFLOW: GAMIFICATION AT WESTERNU
University Resources
 Strategist & Architect
 Game Developer
 Game Interface Designer
 3D Animators & Designers
 TechSupport request for Game Design consultation
([email protected])
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 CONCLUSION
 Gamification offers instructors
 Numerous creative opportunities to enliven their instruction with contests,
leader boards, or badges
 Opportunities to give students a recognition mechanism and a positive
attitude toward their study
 Ability to measure progress toward clear goals, allowing students to
compete against themselves
 Instructional tools using game elements that engage and motivate
students, encourage exploration, foster independent effort , and build
problem-solving skills
 Gamification is not about adding games to classes, but designing
classes as games
 QUESTIONS?
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 REFERENCES
 Jane McGonigal, Higher Education Is a Massively Multiplayer Game,
Educause Conference, 2013.
 Huang, Wendy; Soman, Dilip (December 10, 2013). 
A Practitioner’s
Guide To Gamification Of Education
(Report, February 2014). Rotman
School of Management, University of Toronto.
 Zichermann, G. (2010, October 26). Fun is the future: Mastering
gamification. Google Tech Talk. http://youtu.be/6O1gNVeaE4g.
 Educause Learning Initiative, 7 Things You Should Know about
Gamification, https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7075. pdf
 TED, 2010, March 17. Jane McGonigal: Gaming Can Make a Better
World. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dE1DuBesGYM
THE GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION
 REFERENCES
 Joey J. Lee, Jessica Hammer, Gamification in Education: What, How,
Why Bother? Source: http://www.gamifyingeducation.org/files/Lee Hammer-AEQ-2011.pdf
 Virtual Arcade Game, College of Pharmacy, Western University of
Health Sciences http://teachtech.westernu.edu/virtual-arcadepharmacy/
 4 Management Tools for Gamification of Education, http://classroomaid.com/2012/09/26/4-management-tools-for-gamification-ofeducation/

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