Handel analysis (includes cadence). - The Parker E

Close Analysis and cadences
 A cadence is a type of musical ending. It’s like a full
stop or comma at the end of a sentence. There are 4
types you will need to be able to recognize
 Perfect Cadence: Musical full stop. The Music sounds
finished. Chords V to I (5 to 1)
 Imperfect cadence: Musical comma. Music is just
resting, feels unfinished. Commonly chords I to V (1 to
5) or IV to V (4 to 5)
 A cadence is a type of musical ending. It’s like a full
stop or comma at the end of a sentence. There are 4
types you will need to be able to recognize
 Plagal Cadence: Musical full stop. Has an ‘amen’ feel,
softer ending. Chords IV to I (4 to 1)
 Interrupted cadence: You expect a perfect cadence,
but instead of V to I, you get V to VI (5 to 6)
Bars 1-11
 Orchestral intro. Ideas 1 and 2 stated
 Uses a hemiola rhythm in bars 9-10
 Hemiola: Device used near cadence points where
notes are grouped in 2 beats
 Suspensions are used at bars 9-10
 Suspensions: Where a note from the previous chord is
held into the next bar and then resolved
 The introduction ends with a perfect cadence
 The harmonic rhythm (how many chords per bar) is
either 1 per bar, or 2+1
Bars 11-14(beat 1)
 Alto enters with Idea 1 (mf)
 Mainly syllabic
 Perfect cadence in A major bars 13-14
Bars 14-17
 Loud (f) chordal response from sopranos, tenors and
 Homophonic Texture
 Melody is heard in the bass, which often happens in
the chordal/homophonic sections
 Perfect cadence at bars 16-17
Bars 17-22
 Imitative entries of idea 2:
 Tenor Bar 17
 Bass Bar 19
 Soprano Bar 20
 Bars 21-22 modulating (changing key) to E Major
Bars 22-33
 In E major
 Ideas 1 and 2 combine
 Idea 1: Tenor (bar 22) and Soprano (bar 25)
 Idea 2: Alto (bar 25) and tenor (bar 28)
 This results in 2 part counterpoint and has a
polyphonic texture
 Lots of perfect cadences in this section (e.g bar 24-25)
Bars 33-38
 Strong, 4 part homophonic version of idea 1 in E major
 Melody is in the bass again
 “Shall be revealed” is tagged onto the end of idea 1
Bars 38-43
 Orchestral link using idea 2 “shall be revealed”
 Bars 38-39 use sequences
 Bars 41-42: Hemiola rhythms
 Bar 42: Suspension
 Ends with a perfect cadence at 42-43
Bars 43-50
 Idea 3 introduced (started by the alto)
 Thin vocal texture in comparison to chorus sections
 Back to A major
 A major emphasized with strong A C# E crotchet
movement in the bass (bars 43-45)
 Perfect cadence in A major (46-47)
Bars 51-57
 Tenor and bass introduce Idea 4
 Repeated notes act as a tonic pedal
 Sopranos sing idea 3 above this, creating a 4 part
polyphonic texture
 Perfect cadence ends the section
Bars 58-73
 Sopranos launch idea 4 on E
 Alto tenor and bass enter at bar 59 with idea 3
 This small section ends with a plagal cadence at
 We then have lots of imitation, during which the key
modulates to E major
Bars 74-83
 Short orchestral link based on idea 1 takes us to a 4
part homophonic statement of idea 1 in B major
 Idea 3 follows, but in a different texture (what texture is
 All parts come together in strong homophony on the
word ‘together’
 This is a pause as it uses an imperfect cadence and
momentum carries on straight afterwards
Bars 83-102
 B major
 Sopranos sing idea 4 on top F#. Every time this idea comes
back, the pitch is higher (A E F#)
 Handel now brings all 4 musical ideas together
 Full texture at bars 93-94
 Bars 93-102: Handel uses ideas 1,2 and 4 in different parts
 During this section, music modulates to E major
 Ends with a perfect cadence in E major (Bars 101-102)
Bars 102-124
 A Major
 Altos lead with idea 3, though this is fragmented to 1 bar echoes in
the tenor and bass to reduce the texture before the final section
 105-106: Parts added to emphasize words “shall see it together”
 Over this the sopranos have idea 1, reaching a climatic top A at
bar 110 on the word ‘lord’
 This is answered by the three lower parts
 Imitative entries follow
 At bars 118 idea 3 is heard, with idea 4 in the bass on the note of
E (dominant pedal)
 Section ends with an imperfect cadence
Bars 124-134
 Idea 4 dominates this section, signaling the end
 This time we hear it on the tonic note (A)
 This section has already been hear at bars 51-55,
expect the voices have swapped parts (invertible
 The pieces comes to a sudden halt at bar 133. Handel
often does this for dramatic effect
Bars 134-138
 A dramatic 3 beat rest in all voice parts leads to the
final grand and slow (adagio) plagal cadence in 4 part
homophony adding emphasis to the words “Hath
spoken it”
Listening and Appraising
 How is the joyful mood or ‘affection’ of this chorus achieved by
 Name 3 different types of musical texture that appear in this
 Name the 4 voice parts that perform this chorus
 What instruments accompany the singers?
 How many different ideas are used by Handel?
 Identify 2 ways that the last 3 bars are given a dramatic ending
 Give bar numbers where you can hear
a) One voice part
b) two voice parts
c) Three voice parts
d) 4 voice parts
 In general how are the words set to the music?
 How is the word ‘revealed’ treated throughout the piece?

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