Buruli Ulcer Stephen Shenigo What do you know? http://brendanomeara.com/?attachment_id=293 Buruli Ulcer was first Identified in 1897 by Sir Albert Cook http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/indexplus/result.html?_IXMAXHITS_=1&_IXACTION_=query&_I XFIRST_=7&_IXemailreal=true&_IXbox=28636&_IXSPFX_=templates%2Ft&_IXFPFX_=template s%2Ft http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/country/uganda.html It was described in detail in 1948 by Peter MacCallum http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/pacific/australia/ http://www.huu.unimelb.edu.au/university-history/150stories/maccallum.html Mycobacterium ulcerans was identified in 1948 by Peter MacCallum http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/content/55/1/37.full http://www.huu.unimelb.edu.au/university-history/150stories/maccallum.html Today the disease has been identified in 33 countries http://www.bvgh.org/Biopharmaceutical-Solutions/Global-Health-Primer/Diseases/cid/ViewDetails/ItemID/25.aspx About half of the worldwide cases are in people under 15 <15 years Africa 48% Australia 10% Japan 19% Mean Med. Range 24 15 0.5–90 50 62 1–96 41 48 2–81 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs199/en/ The disease starts as painless swelling on a particular area of the skin http://www.tropika.net/svc/news/20090415/Chinnock-20090415-News-Buruli-Conference If left untreated this can turn into a full skin ulcer within 4 weeks http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Buruli_ulcer_hand_Nigeria.gif http://www.aifo.it/english/resources/online/courses/buruli/buruli12.htm The disease itself does not necessarily kill people itself, but it does cause deformities http://factsanddetails.com/world.php?itemid=2153&catid=57&subcatid=381 http://www.leprosy.org/labi1 The way the disease is transmitted is still up for debate. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs199/en/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_ringtail_possum How does the disease work? http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/content/55/1/37.full http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mycolactone_2.png Mycobacterium ulcerans emits mycolactone which destroys body tissues http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/content/55/1/37.full http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mycolactone_2.png Buruli Ulcer is diagnosed using IS2404 PCR http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymerase_chain_reaction http://www.casestudiesforglobalhealth.org/post.cfm/vaccine-development-collaborationsstrengthen-pandemic-safety-scientific-possibilities Treatment of Buruli Ulcer can be approached two different ways, using antibiotics or surgery http://education.technyou.edu.au/view/242/antibiotics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Healed_Buruli_ulcer_lesions.jpg There is not yet a specific vaccine for Buruli Ulcer http://www.tbonline.info/galleries/image/2/ http://theintelhub.com/2011/04/23/top-government-vaccine-researcher-indicted-for-fraudaustism-research-now-in-question/ HIV coinfection and paradoxical reaction can further complicate the disease. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652003000300012 http://biology.kenyon.edu/slonc/gene-web/Lentiviral/Lentivi2.html The WHO along with several local organizations are coming together to start to try to fight this disease http://www.ghanacurrentjobs.com/job-vacancy-for-consultants-at-ghana-health-service http://www.truthalliance.net/Archive/ImageGallery/tabid/62/AlbumID/379-36/Default.aspx http://www.who.int/buruli/events/en/ Works Cited • • • • • • • • "Buruli Ulcer." World Health Organization. WHO, n.d. Web. 19 Nov 2012. <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs199/en/>. Hoover, Aaron Z.. "Buruli Ulcer." Medscape Reference. Medscape, 07 2012. Web. 19 Nov 2012. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1104891-overview Amofah, George, and Frank Bonsu. "Buruli Ulcer in Ghana." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d. Web. 19 Nov 2012. <http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article "Cook, Sir Albert Ruskin (1870-1951) and Cook, Lady (Katharine)." Mundus. Mundus, 30 1998. Web. 19 Nov 2012. <http://www.mundus.ac.uk/cats/16/1000.htm>. Fraga, Alexandra G., and Teresa G. Martins. "PLOS One." PLOS One. (2012): n. page. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0033406>. Guest, J.S.. "MacCallum, Sir Peter." Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Web. 19 Nov 2012. <http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/maccallum-sir-peter10905>. "First WHO Report on Neglected Tropical Diseases." World Health Organization. WHO, 12 2012. Web. 19 Nov 2012. <http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/2010report/en/index.html>. Boulkroun, Sheerazed, and Laure Guenin-Mace. "The Journal of Immunology." Journal of Immunology. (2010): 1436-1444. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jimmunol.org/content/184/3/1436.long>.