Why e-Government - Bahrain International eGovernment Forum

Report
Leadership in
e-Government Development
Bahrain International e-Government Forum, Kingdom of Bahrain
8~10 April 2013
Mr. Bong Up CHO
Senior Policy Development Expert
United Nations Project Office on Governance (UNPOG)
http://www.unpog.org
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Contents
 Introduction of UNPOG
 Why e-Government ?
 Challenges of e-Government Development
 Leadership - Korea Experience
- e-Government History as a Presidential Agenda
 Lessons Learned
http://www.unpog.org
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United Nations Project Office on Governance (UNPOG):
Established in 2006, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Achieving MDGs
Enhancing
Governance / e-Governance
Sharing
Knowledge &
Experience
Capacity
Development
http://www.unpog.org
Providing Policy
Advice &
Best Practices
Research &
Policy Development
Raising Awareness &
Establishing
Partnerships
Communications
& Outreach
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.Why e-Government ?
National Perspective
UN Perspective
Better Society
Better Government
Achieving
Millennium Development Goals
efficient
effective
transparent
accountable
participatory
Government
United Nations
※ The United Nations believes that e-Government is integral to the socioeconomic development of the peoples of the world.
http://www.unpog.org
Challenges of e-Government Development
-
“Leadership Failures” ….Lack of finance….Digital divides….Poor coordination….
Workplace and organizational inflexibility….Lack of trust….Poor technical design
-
Others : Government officials’ resistance to change, Lack of interoperability between
systems, etc.
* Research(Aug. 2006) conducted by Oxford Internet Institute
※ Leadership failure can lead to
- Low prioritization of e-Government in public policies and resource allocation
- Lack of integration of the e-Government agenda with mainstream
strategies for public sector reform
- Poor strategic vision and planning of e-Government
http://www.unpog.org
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※ Survey: Major factors for Successful e-Gov. projects
Source: ADB staff survey results on e-Gov 2012
http://www.unpog.org
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Korean Experience
e-Government History
as a Presidential Agenda
http://www.unpog.org
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※ Current Status of Korea’s e-Government
Phase 1 [Foundation]
Consolidation of internal administrative
procedure and establishment of
common basis
Phase 2 [Service Advancement]
Advancement of internal administrative
procedure
Expansion of integrated civil services
Selective public service reform
Korea is
Here !
Phase 2
Phase 1
Level 4
Seamless
Level 2
Enhanced
Level 1
Emerging
Limited web
presence
Regularly updated
contents and
information
Level 3
Transactional
Visa, passport,
birth records
obtained online
Taxes & fees paid
online
Seamless online
service provided by
agencies
Converged
public services
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1. The Park Administration in 1970s
1) Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) was
established in 1976 to develop new technologies related to ICTs
- TDX (Time Division Exchange) to solve the congestion of wire telephone
installation across the country including rural areas (’76~’86)
* World 10th in development & production of the electronic switching system
- D-RAM : Starting with development of 4M DRAM, successfully developed 16M, 64M
and 256M DRAM in a row (’85~’94)
- World’s first Commercialization of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) :
foundation of wireless communication (’89~’96)
2) Creation of Masterplan to computerize administrative systems
- Masterplan to computerize administrative systems of Government agencies
was designed in 1978 to enhance administrative efficiency and upgrade civil services.
http://www.unpog.org
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http://www.unpog.org
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2. The Chun Administration in 1980s
1) Mr. Oh, Myung, then Vice Minister and Minister of Information and
Communications, served about 7 years as a National CIO(’81.5~’88.2)
- Coordinated the development of TDX (domestically produced electronic switching system)
- Established government-funded company, KT(Korea Telecom) for electronic communications
- Founded public telecommunications carrier, Korea Data Communications (Dacom)
2) Computerized National Data in major areas
such as resident registration, real-estate, vehicle records, and finance to lay the groundwork
for informatization at national level
* Focused on storing government records into a digital format.
3) Established National Informatization Agency (NIA) in 1987
- NIA is a statutory agency founded to promote national informatization to develop
e-Government-related policies, and to provide technical expertise for national agencies.
http://www.unpog.org
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3. The Kim, Young Sam Administration (1993 ~ 1997)
1) The Framework Act on Informatization Promotion legislated in 1995.
- Established the legal basis for promoting informatization on national scale
2) The Informatization Promotion Committee (chaired by the Prime Minister
and included other ministers among its members) was organized to
supervise the informatization plans & policies of each ministry.
3) The Informatization Promotion Fund established in 1996.
- Enabled the government to invest intensively in promoting e-Government, developed
technology & manpower and established IT infras, serving as a stable foundation for
Korea’s informatization.
4) High-speed Information and Communications Networks
- In 1995, started to build a nationwide fiber optic network and a high- speed transmission
network and completed the construction in 2005 at a cost of USD 32 billion.
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4. The Kim, Dae Jung Administration (1998 ~ 2002)
1) Creation of a Chief Information Officer (CIO) across the government and local
governments to sustain attention and prioritization of e-Government (‘98.9)
2) IT Training for 10 million citizens (taxi-drivers, housewives, the old, etc.) taught
how to use internet, and the use of word processing (2000)
3) The Electronic Government Act * enacted in 2001 to build foundation for
e-Government promotion. * first in the world
4) The Special Committee for e-Government created in 2001 to
promote interagency collaboration concerning the e-Government initiatives.
※ A joint civilian-government committee under the supervision of the President
5) Selected and carried out 11* major initiatives for e-Government (2001~2002)
- Citizen-oriented(front office) : G4C, Home Tax Service, e-Procurement, Social
Insurance Information System
- Administrative Efficiency(back office) : Finance, Education, Local Gov’t, Personnel
- Infra for e-Government : e-Approval & e-Document between agencies,
e-Signature, Government-wide integrated computer network
http://www.unpog.org
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5. The Roh Administration (2003 ~ 2007)
1) Presidential Committee on Gov’t Innovation & Decentralization launched in 2003
- Selected and Implemented 31 e-Government project initiatives
2) Establishment of Government Integrated Data Center (GIDC)
- Separately and individually operated information systems of 47 government
agencies were integrated and managed together.
3) Construction of ‘e-Participation Portal’ (e-People)
- Integrated the systems of all central governments and diplomatic missions and
connected the systems of local governments & major public institutions.
- Facilitated citizen participation in the decision-making process by allowing their
complaints, policy proposals to be addressed through a single window.
4) Introduction of ‘Digital Budget & Accounting System’ (d-Brain)
- As d-Brain was connected to 63 other systems of 46 institutions including Public
Procurement Service & National Tax Service,
- efficiency and transparency have been improved in national finance management
such as revenue generation, budget planning, execution & settlement.
http://www.unpog.org
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6. The Lee Administration (2008 ~ Feb. 2013)
1) Establishment of Presidential Council on National Informatization
- Prime Minister`s Council on Informatization has been promoted to the
Presidential Council to coordinate informatization policies
2) Integration and Connection of the e-Government services
- Online Civil Service Portal (G4C), Korea e-Government Portal (www.korea.go.kr) and
One-stop Business Support Service (G4B) provide integrated and customized
services for citizens and businesses
 As a result, Korea ranked first in the UN e-Government Surveys in both 2010 and
2012 consecutively.
(Next Step) The New Administration is planning to implement ‘Smart e-Government’
that enables users to enjoy easy & free access to government services
regardless of the delivery channel.
* Launch of Open Government Data Portal (www.data.go.kr) (March 2013)
http://www.unpog.org
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UN Global e-Government Readiness Index
Rank
2012
2010
2008
2005
2004
2003
1
Korea
Korea
Sweden
USA
USA
USA
2
Netherlands
USA
Denmark
Denmark
Sweden
Australia
3
UK
Canada
Norway
UK
Australia
New Zealand
4
Denmark
UK
USA
Sweden
Denmark
Singapore
5
USA
Netherlands
Netherlands
Korea
UK
Norway
6
France
Norway
Korea
Australia
Canada
Canada
7
Sweden
Denmark
Canada
Canada
Norway
UK
8
Norway
Australia
Australia
Singapore
Switzerland
Netherlands
9
Finland
Spain
France
Finland
Germany
Denmark
10
Singapore
France
UK
Norway
Finland
Germany
11
Canada
Singapore
Japan
Netherlands
Netherlands
Sweden
12
Australia
Sweden
Switzerland
Germany
Singapore
Belgium
13
New Zealand
Bahrain
Estonia
New Zealand
Korea
Finland
14
Liechtenstein
New Zealand
Luxembourg
Iceland
New Zealand
France
15
Switzerland
Germany
Finland
Switzerland
Iceland
Korea
http://www.UNPAN.org/DPADM/
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Lessons Learned
http://www.unpog.org
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Lessons Learned from Korea’s e-Government
1) Informatization on the basis of Research & Development
- Technology Development : Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute
(ETRI, in 1976) * (USD 825, per capita GDP of Korea)
 ETRI has been making significant efforts to provide Korea with a remarkable growth in
the area of ICTs
- Policy Development & Provision of Technical Expertise : National Informatization
Agency (NIA, in 1987)
 As the agency responsible for the overall informatization of the nation, NIA has been
providing expertise in developing and implementing the Nat’l Framework Plan on
Informatization Promotion
2) From Top-down Approach to Bottom-up Approach
- At the beginning, most projects on National Informatization were initiated by upperlevel officials including Presidents.
- As time went by, focused on taking a bottom-up approach to prioritize and implement
e-Government projects.
http://www.unpog.org
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Lessons Learned from Korea’s e-Government
3) To the Implementation of Integrated & Connected Projects from Individual Projects
- At the initial stage, e-Government projects and the information system were executed
and operated by respective ministries.
- As citizen-centered services get more importance and the information society
becomes more advanced, it has implemented e-Government projects* focusing
on connection and integration.
* GIDC, Online Civil Service Portal, e-People, d-Brain Finance system, etc.
4) Historical Roles & Responsibilities among Presidents (Continuity of e-Government)
- Top-leadership fully understood the importance of ICTs & e-Government in socioeconomic development and made an aggressive investment on them for more than 30
years consistently.
* Making Foundation (R&D: ETRI) → Computerization Basic National Information (DB)
→ Establishment of Policy Development Institute(NIA) → Construction of Infrastructure
→ Creation of Enabling Environments ; Law, Institutions, and Fund
→ Implementation of Major e-Government Projects
http://www.unpog.org
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Triangle of e-Government Development
e-Government
Strategy
Technology
Development
http://www.unpog.org
Policy
Development
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e-Government
is A Journey,
not a
destination
http://www.unpog.org
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Thank you
for your attention!
http://www.unpog.org
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