EIA Study and Report Preparation

Report
EIA Study and Report
Preparation
20 June, 2013
Dr. Suneel Pandey
Senior Fellow
EIA as an Environmental
Management Tool
Environmental Impact Assessment
(EIA) - Introduction
• An assessment of the impact of a planned activity on
the environment”
• EIA is a planning tool used to predict and evaluate the
potentially significant impacts of proposed action and
provide a mitigation plan for minimizing adverse
impacts for making decision on the proposed project/
program/policy
• Rio principle 17 states
“EIA as national instrument, shall be undertaken for the
proposed activities that are likely to have a significant
adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a
decision of a competent national authority”
EIA – A Tool for Sustainable
Development
• EIA - Tool for integrating objectives of environmental
management into decision making process.
• Environmental (Protection) Act 1986, empowered Central
Government to introduce requirement of formal EIA
procedure prior to clearance for the projects likely to have
significant environmental impacts.
• Notable(& most important) feature of EIA notification was to
treat EIA process as “Statutory requirement” rather than an
“Administrative requirement”.
EIA/EC Process in India
• 1978 - Hydro projects, thermal power projects were
subjected to environmental assessment
• 1980-1994 - DoE/MoEF was doing all projects requiring
PIB approval
• EIA for environmental clearance was made mandatory in
1994 under E (P) Act
• 1994-2006 - MoEF listed 32 category of listed projects
including private investments
• Earlier only MoEF was assigned the responsibility of the
appraisal of projects for EIA Clearance
Identified Constraints in EC Process
under EIA Notification, 1994
• Cumbersome procedure
• Disproportionate details sought with applications
• Delay in appraisal meetings
• Time consuming and requiring undue effort
• Reopening of technical issues during various
stages of appraisal
• Poor quality of EIA studies by consultants
• Delays by other concerned agencies
Ownership of EIA Report &
Other Documents by the
Project Proponent
(MoEF OM Dated Dec. 5th, 2011)
Violation of EPA/EIA/CRZ
Notification
(MoEF OM Dated Nov. 16th, 2010)
Steps to be Followed in EIA
Study/EC Process
EIA
Network
EIA Methodology Preparation of EIA/EMP Report
• Screening
• Scoping
• Baseline Data Collection
• Prediction of Impacts
• Evaluation of Impacts
• Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
• Post Project Monitoring (PPM)
• Public hearing
Steps to be Followed in EIA
Study/EC Process
• Whether Project Requires Environmental Clearance (EC) ( As per EIA
Notification (2006) as amended till date?
• Whether it is NH/SH Project /or Expansion Project in Hilly Area above
100m MSL?
• What is the Category of Project ( Category “A” or “B”)?
• Whether EC will be Provided by MoEF (As Category “A” or Category “B”
Project due to absence of duly constituted SEIAA?
• Whether “GC” Applies or Not?
• Whether they Require Forest/Wildlife/CRZ Clearance Also ?
• What are existing MoEF provisions/rules/procedures?
• If EC (As Per EIA Notification) is Required Along with other
Environmental Clearances?
Contd…
• Depending Upon the Answers, we know that What Clearances have to
obtained and where we have to approach for EC & Submit Duly Filled
Form 1 with Pre-Feasibility Report (or DPR as required) along with
Proposed ToR to the Concerned EAC of MoEF/SEIAA
• For Other “Clearances” Separate Forms Have to be Filled as per the
Prescribed Proforma
• EAC Prescribes additional ToR depending on project setting/description
& environmental setting
• If project involves Forest Clearance – Ensure that a formal request in
Prescribed Proforma has been made to Concerned State Government/
Forest Deptt. for Stage –I Clearance
• If it involves “Wildlife Clearance” – Separate Form has to be Submitted –
Before the ToR Stage
Steps to be Followed in EIA
Study/EC Process- Contd.
• Carryout EIA Study as per ToR and additional ToR provided to
project proponent
• Generally public hearing is mandatory except for projects
which do not require additional land acquisition
• Conduct PH (coordinated by concerned SPCB) in affected
districts as per the specified procedure (based on Draft EIA
Report)
• Include comments/clarifications in Final EIA Report
• Present the Final EIA Report to EAC
• Provide Clarifications (If Sought by EAC)
• If the project require Forest Clearance, Stage-I clearance
must be available with project proponent
Generic Structure of EIA Report as per
EIA Notification, 2006
S. NO.
EIA STRUCTURE
CONTENTS
1.
Introduction
 Purpose of report; Identification of project & project proponent; Brief description of nature, size, location and importance of project to country,
region; Scope of study – details of regulatory scoping carried out (As per Terms of Reference)
2.
Project Description
 Condensed description of those aspects of the project likely to cause environmental effects. Details of the following: Type of project; Need for
the project; Location (maps showing general location, specific location, project boundary & project site layout); Size or magnitude of operation;
Proposed schedule for approval and implementation; Project description. Including drawings showing project layout, components of project
etc. Schematic representations of the feasibility drawings which give information important for EIA purpose; Description of mitigation measures
to meet environmental standards, environmental operating conditions,
3.
Description of the
Environment
 Study area, period, components & methodology; Establishment of baseline for valued environmental components, as identified in scope; Base
maps of all environmental components
4.
Anticipated Environmental
Impacts & Mitigation
Measures
 Details of Investigated Environmental impacts due to project location, possible accidents, project design, project construction, regular
operations, final decommissioning or rehabilitation of a completed project; Measures for minimizing adverse impacts identified; Irreversible &
Irretrievable commitments of environmental components Assessment of significance of impacts; Mitigation measures
5.
Analysis of Alternatives
(Technology& Site)
 In case, scoping exercise results in need for alternatives: Description of each alternative; Summary of adverse impacts of each alternative;
Mitigation measures proposed for each alternative and; Selection of alternative
6.
Environmental Monitoring
Program
 Technical aspects of monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation measures
7.
8.
Additional Studies
Project Benefits
 Public Consultation; Risk assessment; Social Impact Assessment.; R&R Action Plans
 Improvements in physical infrastructure; Improvements in social infrastructure; Employment potential –skilled; semi-skilled and unskilled;
Other tangible benefits
9.
Environmental Cost Benefit  If recommended at the Scoping stage
Analysis
10.
EMP
 Description of administrative aspects of ensuring that mitigative measures are implemented & their effectiveness monitored, after approval of
the EIA
11
Summary & Conclusion
 Overall justification for implementation of project; Explanation of how, adverse effects have been mitigated
12.
Disclosure of Consultants
Engaged
 The names of the Consultants engaged with their brief resume and nature of Consultancy rendered
Screening/Threshold Criteria for Road/
Highway Project as per EIA Notification 2006
(Amendments)
Project or Activity Category With Threshold Category
Limit
Threshold Limit
7 (f)
Highways
A
i) New National Highways;
and ii) Expansion of
National Highways greater
than
30km
involving
additional right of way
greater than 20m involving
land
acquisition
and
passing through more than
one State.
With
B
(i) All New State
Highways Project;
and
(ii)
State
Highway
expansion project in Hilly
Terrain (above 1,000 m
AMSL)
and
or
ecologically
sensitive
areas
Condition, if any
General Conditions shall apply, any
project or activity specified in category
“B” will be treated as Category A, if
located in whole or in part within 10km
from the boundary of:
i) Protected Areas notified under the
Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
ii) Critically Polluted areas as identified
by the Central Pollution Control Board
from time to time,
iii) Notified Eco- sensitive areas by MoEF
iv)
inter-state
boundaries
and
international boundaries
Note: Highways include expressways.
Guidelines of World Bank on the requirements
of the Contents of an EIA report
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Executive Summary
Policy, Legal, Institutional Framework
Project Description
Baseline Data
Environmental Impact Analysis
Cost/Benefit Analysis
Analysis of Alternatives
Mitigation Plan
Institution Building
Environmental Monitoring Plan
Consultation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High
High
High
High
High
Low
High
High
High
High
High
Guidelines of European Bank for
Reconstruction & Development (EBRD) on the
requirements of the Contents of an EIA report
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Executive Summary
Policy, Legal, Institutional Framework
Project Description
Baseline Data
Environmental Impact Analysis
Cost/Benefit Analysis
Analysis of Alternatives
Mitigation Plan
Institution Building
Environmental Monitoring Plan
Consultation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High
High
High
High
High
Low
High
High
High
High
High
Guidelines of Asian Development Bank (ADB)
on the requirements of the Contents of an EIA
report
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Executive Summary
Policy, Legal, Institutional Framework
Project Description
Baseline Data
Environmental Impact Analysis
Cost/Benefit Analysis
Analysis of Alternatives
Mitigation Plan
Institution Building
Environmental Monitoring Plan
Consultation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
Guidelines of MoEF on the requirements of the
Contents of an EIA report
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Executive Summary
Policy, Legal, Institutional Framework
Project Description
Baseline Data
Environmental Impact Analysis
Cost/Benefit Analysis
Analysis of Alternatives
Mitigation Plan
Institution Building
Environmental Monitoring Plan
Consultation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
High
Low
High
Low
Characteristics of an EIA Report
Emphasis on four aspects:
a) Layout
b) Presentation
c) Content and
d) Summary
Brief description of Content
•
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Project Description
Alternatives
Baseline Environment
Impact Identification
Evaluation and Prediction of Impacts
• Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan
Baseline Data Collection
Points to Be Considered for
Baseline Data Generation
• Improvement in the approach to select the monitoring
network
• Improvement in the approach to design the monitoring
network
• Improvement in the quality of Baseline data
• Development of standardized data base format
• Creation of a national data bank on environmental
quality using GIS as a tool.
Baseline Data Collection
•Primary Data ( Actual On-Field Collection) and/or
•Secondary Data (From Reliable/Authentic Sources )
• Air Quality (Along with Meteorological Parameters)
• Noise
• Water Environment ( Ground & Surface)
 Quality & Quantity Assessment
• Flora & Fauna
• Socio-Economic
All Information are to collected within 10Km / CoI for Road & Highway Projects
Ambient Air Quality Standards
National Ambient Air Quality Standards,
2009
*Annual
Arithmetic
Mean of minimum
104 measurements in
a year taken twice a
week 24 hourly at
uniform interval.
**24-hourly/8-hourly
values should be met
98% of the time in a
year. However, 2% of
the time, it may
exceed but not on the
two consecutive days.
Ambient Noise Standards
Ambient Air Quality Standards in Respect of
Noise
Limit in dB(A) Leq
Category of Area
Day time
Night time
Industrial Area
75
70
Commercial Area
65
55
Residential Area
55
45
Silence Zone
50
40
• Day Time: 6 am to 10 pm
• Night time:10 pm to 6 am
• Silence zone: Areas upto 100 m around premises such as
hospitals, educational institutions and courts.
• The Silence zones are to be declared by the Competent Authority
Environmental Management Plan
(EMP)
Elements of EMP
• Avoid adverse impacts as far as possible by use of
preventative measures (Impact Avoidance)
• Minimize or reduce adverse impacts to ‘as low as
practicable’ levels (Impact Minimization)
• Remedy or compensate for adverse residual impacts
which are unavoidable and cannot be reduced further
(Impact Compensation)
Phases of EMP
• Pre-Construction /Design Stage/Phase
• Construction Phase (Including Site Clearing Operations)
• Operation
• Environmental Issues may vary in New Project (Greenfield)
as compared to up-gradation/widening road/highway project
(depending on project & environmental setting)
• EMP may also accordingly vary
Issues to be covered/addressed in
EMP
• Applicable Environmental Laws
• Ways & means to ensure compliance of Environmental Laws
/Rules/Regulations
• Identification/Delegation of the responsibilities to ensure
compliance
• Special emphasis on
• Availability of raw materials (water, sand, aggregate, soil, fly
ash, etc.) (quality, quantity & identification of their sources)
• Tree cutting
• Construction of bye-passes (effect due to acquisition of
prime agricultural land
Issues to be Covered/Addressed In
EMP- Contd.
• Compliance of various IRC Guidelines MoRTH
Specifications to be ensured
• Road safety considerations are integral part of EIA/EMP
Report
• Detailed Environmental Monitoring Programme/Budget for
EMP has to be indicated in the EMP
Public Hearing Related Issues
•
•
•
•
28th. Sept.11- OM Public Hearing
PHs shall be supervised by DM/District Collector/Dy. Commissioner or their
representative (not below ADM), assisted by SPCB/ UTPP Representative.
Date, time and venue postponement shall not be undertaken
If done due to Exceptional Circumstances, Postponement shall be displayed and
notified to the public
Fresh dates to be taken and notified by SPCB/UTPCC member secretary and DM/ DC/
Deputy Commissioner
Presentation before Appraisal
Committee for Prior EC
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report
• Readability
• Write Clearly
• Remove all ambiguities
• Avoid use of technical/jargon; all
technical terms should be clearly
explained.
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report
• Consideration
and focus
• Do not slant or misinterpret
findings
• Avoid confusion or mix-up
among
economic,
environmental,
and
ecological
impacts
and
productivity
• Avoid
unsubstantiated
generalities
• Avoid conflicting statements
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report
• Presentation
• Use well-defined, acceptable,
qualitative terms
• Quantify factors, effects, uses
and activities that are readily
amenable to quantification.
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report
• Data
• Identify all sources
• Use up-to-date data
• Use
field
data
collection
programmes as necessary
• Use technically approved data
collection procedures
• Give reasons for use of unofficial
data.
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report
• Methods
and
Procedures
• Use quantitative estimation
procedures, techniques and
models for arrival at the best
estimates.
• Identify and describe all
procedures and models used
• Identify
sources
of
all
judgments
• Use procedures and models
acceptable by professional
standards.
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report
• Interpretation
of Findings
• Consider and discuss all
impact areas before any
are dismissed as not
applicable.
• Analyse
controversial
issues, and discuss the
implications of all results
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report
• Interpretation
of Findings
• Consider the implications for
each area of a range of
outcomes having significant
uncertainty
• Analyse each alternative in
detail and give reasons for
not selecting it.
• Scrutinize and justify all
interpretation, procedures,
and findings that must stand
up
under
expert
professional scrutiny.
Documentation requirements for
submission of EIA report
• Feasibility report (One copy);
• Site clearance for site specific projects mentioned in the EIA
notification;
• EIA and EMP reports (20 copies);
• No Objection certificate from SPCB’s and other local
authorities;
• Duly filled in Application form (Environmental Appraisal
Questionnaire);
Documentation requirements for
submission of EIA report
• Risk analysis Report (20 copies), in case of
projects involving hazardous substances;
• Rehabilitation plan where displacement of
people is anticipated;
• Commitment regarding availability of water and
electricity from competent authorities;
• Clearance from Airports Authority of India, if
applicable; and
• Details of public hearing conducted by the
concerned SPCB.
How to prepare the findings for
Reviewer?
• To what extent are both the beneficial and
adverse environmental effects clearly explained?
• What are the risks of adverse consequences and
how are they evaluated?
• What is the scope of the EIA in terms of external
factors and time lag effects?
• What (if any) are the impacts on environmentally
sensitive areas, endangered species and their
habitats, and recreational/aesthetic areas?
How to prepare the findings for
Reviewer?
• What alternatives are considered: no project?
other sites? other technologies?
• What lessons from previous similar projects are
incorporated?
• How do the environmental effects change the
costs and benefits of the project?
• What adverse effects are unavoidable?
• What public participation and review of project
plans or the EIA have occurred?
How to prepare the findings for
Reviewer?
• What mitigation measures are proposed, and
who would be responsible for implementing
them?
• What are the parameters to be monitored so
that the sate of the environment can be studied
throughout the project?
Presentation Before EAC/SEAC
• Consultant will have to make the presentation
• Higher official from project proponent/user agency has to
accompany consultant during presentation/discussion
• EIA Report has to submitted in time to all concerned
• Special emphasis has to be given to various issues raised in
Public Hearing
• Point-wise replies/presentation is required
• No lengthy introduction/arguments
• All supporting documents/information must be kept in readiness
• If project involves some special environmental issue/adequate
emphasis to be made in the Presentation

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