### Powerpoint

```Array Operations
ENGR 1181
MATLAB 4
Today's Learning Objectives
 After today’s class, students will be able to:
• Explain the meaning of element-by-element operations.
• Identify situations where the standard operators in MATLAB (when
used with arrays) are reserved for linear algebra, which is not always
element-by-element.
• Apply dot operators for the six cases where linear algebra is not
element-by-element and therefore dot operators are needed to
produce element-by-element calculations.
Scalar Math
For scalar variables
a and b :
MATLAB has scalar math
operations:
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
a = 4 ;
b = 2 ;
a
a
a
a
a
+
–
*
/
^
b
b
b
b
b
Define the vector v and the scalar c :
>> v = [ 10
>> c = 4 ;
>> v + c
>> c + v
20
30
40 ] ;
ans =
14
24
34
44
Scalar - Vector Multiplication
For the vector v and scalar c :
>> v = [ 10
>> c = 4 ;
20
30
40 ] ;
Multiply them:
>> c * v
>> v * c
ans =
40
80
120
160
Scalar - Vector Division
>> v = [ 10
>> c = 4 ;
20
30
40 ] ;
Divide:
>> v / c
ans =
2.50
5.00
7.50
10.00
Scalar - Vector Division
>> v = [ 10
>> c = 4 ;
20
Divide:
>> c / v
Error using /
Matrix dimensions
must agree.
30
40 ] ;
>> c ./ v
ans =
0.40
0.20
0.13
0.10
Scalar - Vector Exponents
>> v = [ 10
>> c = 4 ;
Exponent:
>> v ^ c
20
30
40 ] ;
Better:
>> v .^ c
ans =
10000
160000 810000 2560000
Error using ^
Inputs must be a scalar and a square matrix.
To compute elementwise POWER, use POWER (.^) instead.
Scalar - Vector Math Summary
For a scalar c and a vector v:
Subtraction
v + c
v – c
or
or
c + v
c – v
Multiplication
or
v * c
v.* c
or
or
c * v
c.* v
Division
v / c
v./ c
or
c./ v
v.^ c
or
c.^ v
or
Exponent
Define the vector x and the vector y :
>> x = [ 10
>> y = [ 2
>> x + y
>> y + x
20
4
30
6
40 ] ;
8 ] ;
x and y must be
the same length!
ans =
12
24
36
48
Vector - Vector Multiplication
x = [ 10
y = [ 2
20
4
30
6
40 ];
8 ];
Multiply:
>> z = x * y
??? Error using ==> mtimes
Inner matrix dimensions must agree!!!
Vector - Vector Multiplication
x = [ 10
y = [ 2
20
4
30
6
40 ] ;
8 ] ;
Multiply two vectors element-by-element:
>> z = x .* y
z =
20
80
180
320
Vector - Vector Division
x = [ 10
y = [ 2
20
4
30
6
40 ] ;
8 ] ;
Divide:
Also try
>> x ./ y
>> y ./ x
ans =
ans =
5
5
5
5
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
Vector - Vector Exponents
x = [ 2
y = [ 2
2
4
2
6
2 ] ;
8 ] ;
Exponent:
Also try:
>> x .^ y
>> y .^ x
ans =
ans =
4
16
64
256
4
16
36
64
Vector - Vector Math Summary
For two vectors x and y :
Subtraction
x + y
x – y
or
or
y + x
y – x
Multiplication
x.* y
or
y.* x
Division
x./ y
or
y./ x
Exponent
x.^ y
or
y.^ x
Always use the dot operator for Multiply, Divide, and Exponent
Example 1
Calculate y = 4x2 for x = 1, 2, 3 and 4
First define x
>> x = [ 1 2 3 4 ];
Then calculate y
>> y
Required
Which '.' is required below?
y = 4.*x.^2
y =
4 16
36
64
y = 4*x.^2
y =
4 16
36
64
Example 2
Calculate y = (4a2 + a)/(2+a) for a = 1, 2, 3 and 4
First define a :
>> a = [ 1 2 3 4 ]
a =
1
2
3
4
>> y = ((4*a.^2)+a)./(2+a)
y =
1.6667
4.5000
7.8000
11.3333
Built - In Vector Functions
MATLAB has built-in functions for vectors
When v is a vector:
max(v)
Returns the largest element in v
min(v)
Returns the smallest element in v
mean(v)
Returns the average value of the elements in v
sum(v)
Returns the sum of the elements of v
length(v) Returns the number of elements in v
sort(v)
Sorts the elements of v
Important Takeaways
 Know when to use the dot operator for Multiply,
Divide, and Exponent.
 Always use a dot operator when appropriate
and understand what you are trying to
accomplish when you use it.
 Vector functions operate on all of the numbers
in a vector or matrix.
Preview of Next Class
 Input and Output
• Inputting data into and out of programs
• GPA calculator example
 With and without use of vectors
• Inputting to a script file
• Output to command window
What’s Next?
 Review today’s Quiz #04
 Open the in-class activity from the EEIC website
and we will go through it together.
 Then, start working on MAT-04 homework.