Attitudes and attitude change

The consumer as director:
attitude and attitude change
Week 6
Good and bad are but names readily transferable to this or that”
Ralph Waldo Emerson 1841
Lectures objectives
Understand the nature and power of attitudes.
Attitudes are more complex than they first appear.
We form attitudes in several ways.
Consumers are motivated to maintain consistency
between all the components of their attitudes, so they
may alter one or more parts to realise this goal.
• Understand ways of measuring attitudes – focus on
Theory of Reasoned Action
• Understand ways of changing attitudes
• An enduring combination of motivational, emotional, perceptual and
cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of the environment
• A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects,
advertisements, or issues
• Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person (i.e. they
are determined by a person’s motives)
• Attitudes are salient
– Important, meaningful to the individual
• Learned predisposition to behave in a consistently (un)favourable way
with respect to a given object
– Direction of liking, favourability (+ve or –ve)
– Intensity or strength , accessibility
– Confidence or degree to which consumer believes their attitude is ‘right’
Attitudes have consistency
Attitudes are relatively consistent with the behaviour they reflect
e.g. if I believe smoking is unhealthy I may try to stop smoking
Consumers often do not behave consistently with their attitudes for several reasons:
Attitudes occur within a situation
Competing demands for resources
Social influence
Specific situations can cause consumers to behave in ways seemingly inconsistent with their
When measuring attitudes, must consider the situation in which the behaviour takes place or the
relationship between attitudes and behaviour could be misinterpreted
E.g. what is my attitude towards station wagons now when I have no kids vs. when I do have kids?
E.g. attitude towards McDonalds is very negative, but when travelling on the road it is convenient.
Attitudes are transferable
Attitude transfer applies where an attitude toward one situation can be applied to another
One attitude can affect several purchase situations
E.g. Brand extensions
Positive attitudes toward brands (i.e. the object)
can help the success of brand extensions
• Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an object (Ao).
– Object refers to such things as:
product (e.g. iPod)
product category (e.g. fashion clothing)
brand (e.g. Coca-Cola)
service (e.g. Qantas),
possession (e.g. cars)
product use (e.g. smoking)
retailer (e.g. David Jones)
person (e.g. John Howard)
an issue (e.g. drink driving)
• Tricomponent Attitude Model
• Multi-Attribute Attitude Model
• Attitude towards the Ad
• Theory of Reasoned Action
• Tricomponent Model of Attitudes
– Cognition
• the beliefs a consumer holds about an attitude object
– Affect
• the way a consumer feels about an attitude object
– Conative
• the way people behave with regard to the attitude
• The consumer’s beliefs and knowledge about the
attributes of a particular brand, product or outlet
– Many beliefs relate to the evaluation of attributes
– The cognitive component represents the summation of evaluations
– Multi-attribute model
• Represents the consumer’s ‘feelings’ or
emotional reaction to a product
– Based on experience or cognitive information
– Response is person-situation specific
– Cultural influence
Thai Life Insurance
• Represents the consumer’s tendency
(intention) to respond in a particular way
towards the object or event
– Behaviour
– Intention
– Situational influence
The three components of an attitude (cognitive, affective and behavioural)
have a tendency to be consistent.
A change in one component will have a flow-on effect on the other
Very important in marketing strategy
Cognitive Consistency
– We strive to make sense out of what we think, feel and do
Cognitive Dissonance
– Uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory cognitions
• i.e. Attitudes and behaviour
• E.g. opposing the slaughter of animals and eating meat
• As components of attitude are an integral part
of a marketing strategy, it is important to be able
to measure each component.
Ease of use
Handwriting feature
PC backup
Other features
Known to be simple
to use
A little effort to
learn a few rules
Simple one button
Doesn’t have builtin drawing feature
Casio Cassiopeia
Ease of use
Handwriting feature
PC backup
Other features
A longer learning
Easy, but a little
Some learning
Has drawing and
Note the global
Portray consumers’ attitudes with regard to an object (e.g. a product,
service, cause or issue) as a function of consumers’ perception and
assessment of the key attributes or beliefs held with regard to the
particular attitude object
What is a multi-attribute attitude model?
– It is a mathematical representation of the nonconscious process
consumers go through in evaluating the overall cognitive component
of an attitude toward a particular object.
– Its elements include:
1. Beliefs about an object’s attributes.
2. Ideal performance levels for each attribute.
3. Relative importance attached to each attribute.
• The cognitive component of the tripartite model is generally assessed by
using a version of the multi-attribute or Fishbein model:
• Ao=[SUM]BiEi
• Ao = the overall attitude toward object o
• Bi = the strength of the belief that object o has some particular attribute i
• Ei = the evaluation of the goodness or badness of attribute i
Note that the evaluative component serves as something of a weight.
Measures the impact of advertising on consumer attitudes toward
particular products or brands
Consumers form various feelings (affects) and judgment (cognitions)
about the object as the result of exposure to an ad
Is a consumer’s general liking or disliking for a particular advertising
stimulus during a particular advertising exposure.
The consumer’s attitude toward the ad and beliefs about the brand
influence his or her attitude toward the brand
Affect Transfer Hypothesis
– Aad  Ab  PI
Diesel In-House team: Wilbert Das, Antonella Viero, Lucinda Spera, Giulia Castellini
Photographer: Terry Richardson
Creative by Diesel’s global agency: Marcel, France,
Executive Creative Director/copywriter/account supervisor: Frederic Temin
Creative director/art director: Nicholas Chauvin
Art director/typographer: Romin Favre.
The campaign won a Silver Lion for Print at Cannes International Advertising Festival 2007.
I think the ads are:
– Glamorous
– Provocative
– Offensive
– Stylish
– Ridiculous
– Insensitive
The ads make me feel:
– Contented
– Confused
– Distressed
– Superior
I think the brand Diesel is:
– High Quality
– Rebellious
– Fashionable
– Modern
– Mindless
– Trustworthy
– Frivolous
The next time I purchase clothing, I will buy Diesel.
• Changing or establishing an attitude requires manipulation of one or more of the components
of the attitude (i.e. cognitive, affective or behavioural)
•Changing the affective component
– Involves changing the consumer’s ‘feel’ about a product, without necessarily directly
influencing their beliefs or behaviour
• Classical conditioning
• Affect towards the advertisement
• Mere exposure
• Changing the behavioural component
– Alter the purchase behaviour or consumption behaviour directly, which may in turn lead
to a change in belief or affect
– Change in beliefs or improved knowledge base will have subsequent influence on affect
and behaviour
• Operant conditioning
– sampling (trialing)
Changing beliefs
Shifting importance
Adding beliefs
Changing the ideal
– Shift beliefs about the performance of the brand on one or more attributes
– Shift / upgrade perceptions about quality, durability, link with schematic interpretation
• Eg: Hyundai
– Shift relative importance away from attributes evaluated as poor to attributes that are positively valued
• Eg: Fosters beer: shift from price and taste to social status
– Add new beliefs to the consumer’s belief structure
• McDonald’s - health
• Chanel perfume: reposition to younger audience change belief structure of new TA that Chanel
perfume is stylish, cool
• LG & Hyundai – ‘future driven’ moving consumers to perceive these products as part of future not
the past
• Alter overall assessment of the brand without altering evaluation of brand attributes
• ‘best selling brand’; ‘other imitate
• Social marketing issues: Health, skin cancer, safe driving
Elaboration Likelihood Model
2 routes to persuasion
Highly involved consumers tend to process rational content message
Central route to persuasion
Strongly held attitudes & firm opinions re: object
High involvement products
High attitude accessibility
Processing based on message arguments – evaluation of object strengthened via
rational, cognitive, logical information
Low involved consumers tend to process message cues as a means to acquire
knowledge of brand/product
Peripheral route to persuasion
Low involvement products
Fast moving consumables
Jingles, sounds, product image, demonstration –pictorial, person
Processing based on attention to stimulus cues to increase ‘knowing’ about the
Message will have different effects if communicated by different source
Two important source characteristics:
– Credibility :
• source’s perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness
– Attractiveness:
• source’s perceived social value; celebrities, models, animals
Celebrity sources
1. Attract attention
2. Maybe viewed as more credible
3. Consumers may identify with or desire to emulate the celebrity
4. Consumer may associate know characteristics of the celebrity with attributes of the
product which coincide with their own needs or desires.
‘What is Beautiful Is Good’:
– A physically attractive source tends to facilitate attitude change.
Social adaptation perspective:
– Assumes that the perceiver will weight information seen to be instrumental in forming an
attitude more heavily. Irrelevant information is filtered out to minimise cognitive effort.
Emotional Attachment
– Message is constructed to elicit a response/feeling rather than provide
– Use affect to induce empathy
• Cerebral Palsy
– may increase attraction to a product
– may backfire if consumers believe that people’s feelings are being exploited.
• Seatbelt
• United Colors of Benetton
– promoting social awareness to real-life issues
Appeal Characteristics
– Fear
• unpleasant consequences if attitude and/or behaviour is not altered
• Seatbelts
– Humour
• Learn English
– Comparative advertisement
• comparing attributes of focus brand to those of competitor
• Ability
• using an implied comparison
– ‘the burgers are better at Hungry Jack’s’
• This can be quite effective, although it may also give visibility and awareness to
consumers of the competing brand
• Attitudes are
– made up of what we think, feel and do
– Learnt, depend on the situation, transferable, consistent
• Strategies marketers can use to change the way
consumers think, feel and do
– identify salient attributes and key benefits to develop new products
– measure attitudes and predict behavioral intentions
– create promotional campaigns to influence consumer beliefs,
attitudes, and behaviors.
– employ benefit segmentation

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