### Hashing 2

```Hashing Part Two
Better Collision Resolution
Small parts of this material stolen from
"File Organization and Access" by Austing and Cassel
 Hash function converts key to file address
 Collision is when two or more keys hash to
 Collision Avoidance
o Good Hash Function spreads out the keys evenly
o Non-Dense File decreases chance of collisions and
decreases probes after a collision
 Very simple collision resolution
 if H(key) = A, and A is already used, try
A+1, then A+2, etc
easy to implement
clustering / clumping
 Given the following hashes and linear probing:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
bates = 22
cole = 20
dean = 21
evans = 23
Result of either
◦ poor hash function
◦ dense file
Data
20
21
Cole
22
Bates
23
Dean
24
Evans
25
26
amount
 True random would not work. Instead use
pseudo-random.
While A is in use
A = (A + R) mod T
R = prime
T = Table Size
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
bates = 22
cole = 20
dean = 21
evans = 23
Linear Probing
But what if 25 and 30
hashed to those locations?
Cole would be at 35 -- 4
probes away.
Random Probing, R = 5
Data
20
Data
21
Dean
20
22
Bates
21
Cole
23
Evans
22
Bates
24
23
Dean
25
24
Evans
26
25
27
26
28
Cole


Assuming a better hash function and less dense file are not
options...
And assuming linear and random probing lead to coalesced
lists...
 Chaining : maintain a linked list of collisions,
19 : null
20 : 35 -> null
21 : null
 Advantage: Faster at resolving collisions



File Read Time = seek time + latency +
Smallest Readable Portion = 1 cluster =
4KB (usually)
To access portion of a file, most of the time is
in seek time and latency, not read time
◦ so, number of file reads is more important than size of
reads, until size gets really big

SO... reading a few records from a file takes
no more time than reading just one record




Given, collisions will occur...
Why not just read 2, or 3, or 4 records
"Bucket" - a group of records at the same
"Hash File of Buckets" - hashed keys collide
to small arrays of records in the data file
 use avg collisions and stddev?
 if 1000 records and 200 addresses
◦ then avg is 5.0
◦ but stddev might be 1.0
 start by determining how many records can
fit in one or more disk clusters
 then design a good hash function to match


Can achieve relatively fast access
◦ Remember, the hash function tells us where the record is
located, so only 1 read operation. And even with collisions,
the list of possible records is read into memory, which
searches fast.
◦ Search Time = time to read bucket + time to search the
array


What do we do when the bucket is full?
◦ solutions are similar to collision resolution
◦ we end up reading multiple sets of records

Collisions will happen!
 Poisson Function:
◦ p(x) gives the probability that a given address will
have had x records assigned to it.
(r/N)x e-(r/N)
p(x) = --------------x!
N = number of available addresses
r = number of records to be stored
x = number of records assigned to a given address

Given
◦ N = 1000
◦ r = 1000

Probability that a given address will have
exactly one, two, or three keys hashed to it:
p(1) = 0.368
p(2) = 0.184
p(3) = 0.061

Given
◦ N = 10,000
◦ R = 10,000

How many addresses should have one, two,
or three keys hashed to them?
10,000 x p(1) = 10000x0.3679 = 3679
10,000 x p(2) = 10000x0.1839 = 1839
10,000 x p(3) = 10000x0.0613 = 613


So, 1839 keys will collide once and 613 will
collide at least twice.
Many of those collisions will disrupt probing.

Given
◦ r = 500
◦ N = 1000

Records that never collide = 303
Records that cannot go at their home = 107
Records at their home, but cause collisions = 90
Total = 500
N x p(1) = 1000 x 0.303 = 303

How many overflow records?
1 x N x p(2) + 2 x N x p(3) + 3 x N x p(4) + ...
= N x [1 x p(2) + 2 x p(3) + 3 x p(4)]
= 1000 x [ 1 x 0.076 + 2 x 0.013 + 3 x 0.002]
= 107

Percentage of Records NOT stored at home address
107 / 500 = 21.4%
Packing Density (%)
Synonyms as percent of
records
10
4.8
30
13.6
50
21.4
70
28.1
100
36.8
 We must balance many factors:
• file size
• e.g., wasted space in hashed files
• e.g., extra space for index files
• disk access times
• available memory
• frequency of additions and deletions compared to
searches
 Best Solution of All?
 probably a combination of indexed files, hashing,
and buckets

Thursday April 14
◦ No Class

Tuesday April 19
◦ B-Trees

Thursday April 21
◦ Review
```