Intelligence Assessment and Litigation of IQ

Report
Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior
Assessment:
An in Service Presentation
Michael Creegan, SPE529N
Grand Canyon University
INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT
Intelligence assessment is a necessity in the realm of
special education. Intelligence assessment is used in the
diagnosis of a suspected disability process, and is
considered when identifying an appropriate placement.
Examples of Intelligence Assessment
 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
 Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
(http://www.extremeintellect.com/ei2007/IQ/IQtestlist.html)
ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT
Adaptive behavior assessment systems (ABAS) are used
as a comprehensive measure of an individual on a
“adaptive behavioral scale”. ABAS measure functional
behaviors that students will need in everyday adult life.
Examples of ABAS
 Adaptive Behavioral Assessment System-II
 Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale
 Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC)
(http://www.assessmentpsychology.com/spedtests4.htm)
APPLICATION IN THE CLASSROOM
Both intelligence assessment and adaptive behavioral
assessments are important to, and highly applicable to,
classroom instruction.
Intelligence Assessment
 Identify disability
 Define appropriate placement
 Adapt instruction
Adaptive Behavioral Assessment
 Outline behavioral goals
 Provide individual behavioral supports to learners
LEGAL APPLICATIONS OF IQ ASSESSMENT
While IQ assessment is necessary in the classroom
environment, there are many instances of IQ assessment
have significance in court cases as well.
Examples of IQ Assessment Litigation
 Ferguson v. Massanari
 Roelandt v. Apfel
 Larry P v. Riles
(http://depts.washington.edu/fadu/legalissues/ss.fedcourt.html)
LARRY P V. RILES
Larry P v. Riles is a 1971 federal court case that dealt
with the issue of over representation and test bias.
Outline of Larry P v. Riles
 6 African American students claimed an inappropriate
educational placement
 Plaintiffs believed IQ test was racially biased
 Disproportionate amount of African Americans enrolled
in special education services, specifically Educable
Mentally Retarded (EMR)
 Demanded a reevaluation of placement and diagnosis
practices
(Larry P, n.d.)
PARTIES INVOLVED
Larry P v. Riles involves the San Francisco Unified
School District (Defendants) and 6 African American
students placed in an EMR classroom (Plaintiffs).
Plaintiffs
6 African American students claiming misdiagnosis
Defendants
State and city superintendants and Board of Education
members representing the San Francisco United School
Districts
(Larry P, n.d.)
REASONS FOR THE CASE

The case of Larry P v Riles was brought before the
federal court because the plaintiffs felt that they were
inappropriately diagnoses and placed in special
education services

The plaintiffs argued that the IQ tests used to assess them
were biased against African Americans and have lead to
a disproportionate amount of African Americans
receiving special education services in the San Francisco
United School Districts
(Larry P, n.d.)
MAIN POINTS OF DISAGREEMENT
Plaintiff Argument

Inappropriate EMR diagnosis and
placement of plaintiffs

IQ test bias leading to
overrepresentation of African
Americans

Defendant Argument

School district employs a number
of Mental Retardation
classifications to ensure accurate
placement(EMR, TMR, ect…)

Plaintiffs not an accurate
representation of the African
American population receiving
special education services

IQ testing holds both validity and
reliability
Students not receiving the most
appropriate education
(Larry P, n.d.)
OUTCOME OF LITIGATIONS
The court of appeals found that…
The plaintiffs were inappropriately diagnosed EMR
 The 6 African American students as plaintiffs were an
appropriate representation of the whole of African
American students receiving special education services
as EMR
 IQ tests did exhibit a cultural bias
 California could no longer solely administer IQ tests to
African Americans to diagnose EMR

(Larry P, n.d.)
Implications on Special Education

Schools no longer solely administer IQ tests for the
diagnosis of a suspected disability.

Students are now subjected to a diverse array of
assessments including psychological evaluations and
response to intervention (RTI)

Standardized testing is now more closely scrutinized

Standardized testing must now be conducted in the
language that will wield the most effective results for
that student
Reflecting on Assessment and Litigation
While IQ testing is still commonly used in school
districts, a more diverse range of assessments is now
employed. RIT and psychological evaluations are
common practices for diagnosis and appropriate
placement.
Impact on Instruction
 Appropriate placements
 Appropriate assessments used in the classroom(ABAS)
 More effective education
REFERENCES
Larry P v. Riles. (n.d.) Retrieved April 2, 2010 From:
http://www.uwyo.edu/wind/edec5250/assignments/Larry.pdf

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