maybe - ProForma 3D Printing

Report
Advances in
Desktop 3D Printing
Robert Zollo
Avante Technology, LLC
Workshop Goals
•
Help commercial enterprises assess the viability
of desktop 3D printing for their business
•
Where to go for additional relevant information
Workshop Topics
“State of the Industry” 3D printing
Compare industrial vs desktop 3D printing
Applications and economics
Things to consider when using 3D printing
Where to go for additional relevant information
What We Do
•
Custom Materials for 3D
Printing
•
STL Repair/Validation
Software
•
Architected 3D printers
•
Custom Development
•
Consulting
Commercial
3D Printing
State of the Industry
$2 Billion+
35%per year growth!
• Conceptual Prototypes
• Functional Prototypes
• Production Parts (new)
Why 3D Printing
For the past 30 years
Rapid Prototyping
• Saves time
• Efficient revisions
• Reduces tooling errors
Why 3D Printing
For the past 5 years:
Rapid Prototyping
Specialized, Short
Run Production
Why 3D Printing
Now
2013-2014 & beyond:
Rapid Prototyping,
specialized, Short Run
Production and
high value production
and fixtures, jigs &
molds
Pros & Cons
Industrial 3D Printers
More Material Options
Larger Scale Parts
Faster Printing (maybe?)
More Precise Parts
(maybe?)
More Expensive
depends..)
Service Bureau Option
(it
Economics
Industrial 3D Printers
•
$25,000 - $1Million
•
Metal: $100k-$1mil.
•
Metal mat.: $1k+ /lb
•
Plastic: $25k -$125k
•
Plastic: $100 - $500/lb
Plastics
Industrial 3D Printers
•
SLA (stereolithography $$$
•
DLP (digital laser
processing) $$
•
FDM (fused deposition
modeling) $ - $$$
Industrial 3D Printer
Economics
Why So Expensive?
•
Too few vendors
•
Patent protection
•
Customer’s lack of
knowledge
Pros & Cons
Desktop 3D Printers
Personal Control
Security
Valuable Feedback
Fast Results (maybe)
Lower Costs (probably)
Faster Revisions (usually)
Issues with
Desktop 3D Printers
Lack of precision
Un-reliable
Limited capabilities
Limited materials
Few reliable vendors
Lack of customer support
2014:
Desktop 3D Printers
New Printers
More accurate
More reliable
New materials
Few reliable vendors
Lack of customer support
Economics
New FDM
Desktop Printers:
•
Printers: $1,500 - $3,500
•
Plastic Filaments: $20 $100/lb
Why Not
Desktop 3D
Printing Now
2013-2014 & beyond:
Rapid prototyping,
specialized, short run
production and
high value production
and fixtures, jigs and
molds
Correct Materials Make the
Difference
Using the right plastic materials enables desktop 3D
printers to become highly useful machines for
1. Conceptual prototyping
2. Functional prototyping
3. Production of some parts
4. Production of jigs, fixtures and mold components
State of the Art 2014
Industrial vs. Desktop Materials
•
ABS (various grades)
•
PLA
•
Nylon(various grades)
•
ABS
•
Polycarbonate & alloys
•
Nylon
•
Polysulphone
•
PET/G
•
Ultem
•
Synthetic Rubber
•
etc. etc.
•
New Composites
Physical Attributes
Plastic
Stiffness
Impact
Tensile
Melt Temp
PLA
high
low
low
low
moderate
moderate
ABS
moderate moderate
Nylon
moderate
high
high
high
PET/G
moderate
high
high
moderate
Synthetic
Rubber
low
moderate
high
moderate
Aesthetic Attributes
Plastic
Surface
Colors
Reflectancy
“Feel”
PLA
smooth
bright
moderate
hard
ABS
moderate
moderate
moderate
cheap
Nylon
smooth
bright
high
slick
PET/G
smooth
clear
high
glass-like
Synthetic
Rubber
moderate
bright
moderate
cushy
Material Cost Guidelines
Cost per
Density cubic inch
Cost @
50% fill
rate
Plastic
Price/lb
PLA
$10- $15
1.24
$0.56
$0.28
ABS
$15-$35
1.04
$0.94
$0.47
Nylon
$30-$50
1.07
$1.35
$0.68
PET/G
$30-$40
1.3-1.4
$1.70
$0.85
Synthetic
Rubber
$30-$50
.93-1.05
$1.42
$0.71
3D Printing Applications
FDM Materials by Application:
1. Conceptual prototyping: PLA, ABS, Nylon
2. Functional prototyping: ABS, Nylon, Rubber, PETG
3. Production of some parts: Nylon, Rubber, New Composites*
4. Production of jigs, fixtures and mold components:
ABS, Nylon, New Composites*
* proprietary engineering grade materials
Desktop FDM Materials
“80/20” Rule:
Appropriate use of the right materials enables new
generation desktop printers to handle many of the same
“state of the art” applications promoted by the industrial
printer suppliers (at 10% of the cost!)
Workshop Topics
“State of the Industry” 3D printing
Compare Industrial vs desktop 3D printing
Applications & Economics
Things to consider when using 3D printing
Where to Go for more Relevant Information
Time for a Break
Q&A
Question:
1. How does your company design & make new parts?
2. How long does it take?
3. What does it typically cost?
Making Printable Parts
“Garbage In….
Garbage Out….”
Making a Printable
Design File
STL Format
File Sources:
• CAD
• Scanner
• Other
e
3DTransform.com
Matt Nutsch
Founder
Making 3D CAD
Files Printable
Files Must be:
1. “Water-tight” STL
2. Must consider overhangs
3. Must fit on print bed
3D Scanning
“Reverse Engineering” a
part without the blueprints
The “Seven Deadly Sins” of
Desktop 3D Printing
1. Flawed CAD Design
2. Defective STL File
3. Poor Calibration
4. Flawed/Wrong Filament
5. Improper Printer Settings
6. Variable Ambient Conditions
7. Ineffective print bed adhesion
Guidelines for Successful
Desktop 3D Printing
1. Buy a sturdy printer
2. Calibrate, Calibrate, Calibrate
3. Select the right filament
4. Print height, print speed
5. Print temperature(s)
6. Use of cooling fans
7. In-fill strategy
8. Optimal print adhesion method
9. Use of support material
10. Control the environment
11. Safe pemoval Techniquest
Making Functional Protoypes
Adapt the CAD File to meet the Material Specs.
Be Careful Scaling Up Part Size:
•
Warping
•
Shrinkage
•
Moisture absorption
Physical criteria first
Aesthetics second
Making Production Parts
Balance Physical and
Aesthetic Characterisitcs:
•
Design Multiple Parts
•
Use Multiple Materials
•
Use Support Material
•
Integrate via 3D Printing
The Economics
of 3D Printing
Total Cost of Parts
• Design
• Prototypes
• Pooling
• Production cost
• Revision cost
• Tooling maintenance
Economics of Desktop 3D Printing
“Rule of Thumb” Number One
Part
Simple
Medium
one unit
Yes
Yes
Likely
Likely
2 - 10
Yes
Yes
Likely
Likely
11 - 100
Maybe
Maybe
Maybe
Maybe
Unlikely
Maybe
Maybe
No
Maybe
Maybe
101- 1,000 Unlikely
1,000+
No
Complex Combination
Economics of Desktop 3D Printing
“Rule of Thumb” Number Two
Size
Low Load Medium High Load Hybrid Load
< 3”x3”x3”
Yes
Maybe
Maybe
Maybe
< 6”x6”x6”
Yes
Maybe
Unlikely
Maybe
< 1’x1’x1’
Maybe
Unlikely
No
Maybe
> 1’x1’x1’
Unlikely
No
No
Unlikely
Economics of Desktop 3D Printing
“Rule of Thumb” Number Three
Finish
Low Load Medium High Load Hybrid Load
High
Gloss
Yes
Unlikely
No
Unlikely
Smooth
Yes
Maybe
Unlikely
Maybe
Matte
Yes
Likley
Maybe
Maybe
Not
Important
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Many New Materials
Available This Year
Stratasys
“simulated PP”*
Natureworks:
“PLA co-polymers”
Avante Technology:
New “Engineering Grade"
materials beyond nylon
Parts for Wearable Technology
12 Important Issues:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Toxicity (prolonged skin contact)
Staining (color dye leaching)
Skin irritation (chafing)
Uncomfortable (bad “feel”; causes sweating)
Uncomfortable (poor conformity to body)
Uncomfortable (in-sufficient flexibility)
Recovery from repeated flexing
Swelling due to moisture absorption
Shatter-proof
Sweat-proof
Electromagnetic properties
“Drop Test Compliant”
Key Points:
1. There are Sufficient Materials Available Today for modern Desktop 3D
Printers to create:
•
conceptual prototypes (PLA, ABS)
•
functional prototypes (Nylon, PET, Rubber, ABS)
•
simple, small production parts (Nylon, PET, Rubber, other new)
•
fixtures, jigs and molds for compression molding, sand casting
2. There is a productivity and cost reduction role for industrial and
desktop 3D printing in many businesses right now
3. New materials available this year will enable far greater capability
Try Desktop 3D Printing Today…
(your competitors already are)
For More Information:
[email protected]
Avante Technology, LLC.
Resources for More
Information
•
Avante Technology [email protected]
•
Software Architects, Inc. [email protected]
•
3DTransform.com Matt [email protected]
•
Proforma3DPrinting.com
•
RepRap.org
•
namii.org
•
3DPrinting.com
•
wohlerassociates.com
•
3D Print Show Bellevue August 2014

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