3D Printing An introduction to 3D Printing in schools and its benefits What is 3D Printing? 3D Printing is a form of Additive Manufacturing or Rapid Prototyping. Its unique in its was by adding layer upon layer to build an object as apposed to subtractive manufacturing where the object is built by breaking down a component. Simular to blacksmiths or routing or drilling. 3D Printing uses a digitally drawn object in 3 Dimensions and slices the object into layers. It then adds these layer by layer to build the object. Fact: 3D Printing was first invented by Chuck Hull in 1984 What forms of 3D Printing are available? There are many forms of 3D Printing today. FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) SLA (Stereo-lithography Printing) DLP (Digital Light Processing) The most common type of 3D Printing available today for consumers is FDM printing. Due to its low cost designs and affordability its made its way rapidly in the past 5 years into the market place. A close second would be the SLA and DLP printing thanks to some manufacturers such as Pirate3D and B9 Creator. This presentation will focus on FDM based printers. How does 3D Printing work? FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) works by layering a compounds often plastic on top of each other to form an object The process starts from a 3D File/Object (STL file) rendered in a software program capable of drawing 3D Objects. The Object is then broken up into layers using a slicing program the most simplest is Makerware. Once the object has been sliced and rendered into a bunch of robotic actions the printer gets to work and lays the plastic down layer by layer. One layer at a time the printer will lay the compound (plastic) down ontop of each other to build and object. 3D Printing Time-lapse Video This is a video of an actual 3D Printer in time-lapse. Leapfrog Creatr Printer. What Dangers are involved Surrounding 3D Printing? Studies to date are not conclusive. However there are some key things I think its worth noting. - - Operate your 3D Printer in an area that has up to 10 air changes a day. Do not touch the hot end whilst in operation. Always turn your machine off before attempting any maintenance or repairs. Fumes expelled (Ultrafine Particles) from the printer although noticeable are no dangerous than the fumes we breath in daily. The objects you create could be dangerous. These are not facts they are just an opinion. A full report can be downloaded from the following resource Download Link What Materials Can you Print With? The materials we are going to mention here are just some of the many materials available to 3D Print with. In particular these materials focus on the FDM Printing method. - PLA - ABS - Laywoo-D3 - Bendlay - PVA - T-Glass Nylons (FDA Approved) - Conductive Tglass – Taulman - Nylons Conductive ABS is a blend of ABS, carbon fiber, carbon black Strength - First,like asbutadiene it’s a taulman3D industrial line, it flexibility, has to be ABS or styrene strength, Bendlay - Alcohol Clear Polycarbonate Polyvinyl used a- It's PLA, or acrylonitrile Polylactic Acid, is aismasterbatch. biodegradable plastic with lot of LAYWOO-D3 is conductive afilament wood-based 3Das printing filament byaainventor and permanent Resulting in flat black, strong and we, along with our local testers and some selected machinability, and higher temperature resistance make it a Printing BendLay is very nice print between support material forit PLA It isand features that make great for 3D printing -- to it doesn't giveoften off215° Kai Parthy intended for theprints. RepRap (possibly) similar with littletemperature: shine. industrial testers, are very pleased with the strength of tpreferred plastic and in professional applications. to 240°C water soluble. Itfor willengineers, disolve a much. fumes like ABS does, or warpfaster nearly as also really machines. It is 40% recycled wood with bindingIt's polymers for the glase. Especially with the larger nozzles used on industrial The hot plastic smell deter some as does the While high speed, bestdissipative, layer adhesion can beofunits. heated agitated bath. shiny. remainder. It can printing be usedwith for antistatic, static conduction Temperature - Optimum temperature is aboutrequirement 212c to 224C, plastics petroleum based origin. The additional of abut obtained at 240°C PLA is harder than ABS, more brittle, but that doesn't 3D printing with wood is but remarkable enough, butand this interference filament electric current and electromagnetic screening will print down to 207C and to about 235C. simply heated print means there are some printers Thermal stable as PLA (65 –up 70°C) mean that it'sbed easily breakable -- it's actually super strong -has the ability to mimic wood grain by varying the temperature of shielding. FDA approved – t-glase is specifically made of FDA approved incapable of printing ABS with any reliability. BendLay is a modified ABS, and can be used in food-packaging just when itAdoes give, it's more likely to snap thanproduces bend. the print head. temperature of 180 degrees Celsius a Thethat conductive antistatic ABS has excellent mechanical strength, polymers fordevices direct food contact/containers. This includes cups and medical And itcolor also stays flexible for aCelsius short while as it flow cools, which light and 245 degrees produces a darker color. impact resistance, dimensional stability, high creep and other liquid storage parts as well asfrom utensils. Its also worth noting Lego is made this type of plastic. The water absorption is only 30% of the ABS can be handy. And it that doesn't and crack on larger objects After printing, the “wood” canwarp be cut, ground, and painted. resistance and excellent heat and low temperature resistance Environmental While t-glase is not biodegradable like PLA, it No stress whitening by bending the way ABS can. Basically, each is better for different kinds is a material that’s considered 100% reclaimable. Thus the new High interlayer adhesion of things, and getting comfortable with PLA will give you “struders” that convert failed printswill back to usable line work Solubleand in brake cleaner; acetone make Bendlay crumble choice flexibility. perfectly with t-glase. If you have a “struder”, you can actually mix in 12% of the total weight in discarded clear water bottles. Clarity – like 645 nylon, t-glase’s clarity supports industry’s requirements for non-destructive evaluation of 3D Printed parts. Shrinkage - Very low shrinkage makes printing large flat surfaces a breeze. And it easily prints to acrylic, glass, Kapton and other platforms. Bridging - Those of us that have printed with acrylics and polycarbonates are always envious of their bridging capabilities due to glass temperature. And the new t-glase is very impressive at bridging. Fumes - Unlike some lines, there are no odors or fumes when 3D Printing with t-glase. What Software is Needed to use 3D Printers? There are two main software programs that you’ll require to be able to produce 3D printable files. • The 3D Rendering/Drawing program 1. 2. 3. • 123D Autodesk Design TinkerCAD Any 3D CAD Program Capable of exporting or saving as STL Files The slicing program 1. 2. Makerware Replicator G. In What Subjects or Curriculum areas can I use 3D Printers? Technology - Woodwork, Metal Work - Textiles Arts - Music - Graphics and Media Science - Chemistry, Physics Maths English LOTE Health & PE Humanities - History, Geography Economics - Accounting Printing in wood, protypes and tooling exercises First Printed Bikini – Fabricthe and Clothing Designs Printed Instruments PinholeMaps Camera Used to Capture World in the old ways and Topography Fossil Re-Producing from Scans Printing of Bones and Body Part Replacements Molecule Visualisations andweight Modifications Printed Calculations of rotations, and mass 3D Printing Info Graphic http://www.onlinedegrees.org/how-3d-printing-will-revolutionize-the-classroom/ Where to from here? The Next Slide Show (From Paper to Object) From the Idea a student has through to a physical object in their hands.