Single Pilot CRM and Automation Management

Report
…and Automation Management
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Grew up in the Swabian Alb region of Germany
Started soaring in 1977
German Air Force (F-4 Phantom)
 Graduate Fighter Weapons Instructor Course
 Graduate USAF Advanced Instrument School
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
United Airlines (B727, A319/320)
Academic and Simulator Instructor (ENJJPT)
 Responsible for Instrument Refresher Program
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FAASTeam Member / CFII
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Pilot Toolbox
Flying vs. Managing
Small Distraction – Big Effect
Distraction and Spatial Disorientation
Risk Management / Mitigation
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Single Pilot
No Formal Training Program
Self taught on how to use equipment
No Company SOP
No go / no-go rules
No QA
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
Rests with the PIC
Based on:
 Training
▪ Law of Primacy
 Previous Experience
 Judgment
 Confidence in ability to manage tasks
 Perceived Proficiency
The things available to pilots…

Internal
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 VOR/DME
 GPS
 HSI/MFD
 ILS
External
 ATC
…and
 TCAS
 XM Weather
 UHF/VHF Radio
▪ Separation
▪ Traffic Information
▪ Weather Radar
 Weather
▪ HIWAS
▪ Flight Watch / Service
▪ ATIS
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Contents
 Aircraft Systems
 Rules & Regulations
 Formulas
 Aircraft Configurations
Pitch and Power setting
 CRM skills
 Prior experience
 Ability to analyze
performance
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Contents
 Aircraft Systems
 Rules & Regulations
 Formulas
 Aircraft Configurations
Pitch and Power setting
 CRM skills
 Prior experience
 Ability to analyze
performance
STICK AND RUDDER
INFORMATION MANAGER
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Local Pilot Talk:
 “I just put one of those digital engine monitors in,
it’s more important now than anything else, even
the attitude indicator.”
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Crew Communication:
 What is this doing now? Is it supposed to do that?
Look, it did it again!”
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Situation:
 Engine fire during take off and subsequent engine
shutdown.
 The
pilot WOULD
is setting upTHIS
for a single
engine ILS
AND
WHY
BE
IMPORTANT?
approach.

Question:
 “Sir, I cannot remember the threshold steer point for
RWY 33C.”
Passing 500’ AGL, in IMC, the aircraft was in an
 Situation:
unrecoverable attitude.
 Pilot is executing a missed approach due to
weather and has to divert.
Shortly after that, the screens went red and the
pilot
was caught by surprise, he was unaware of
 Action:
what had
happened.
 While executing
thejust
missed
approach the pilot
diverts attention to setting up onboard avionics
for the divert to the alternate airfield.
 The aircraft enters a right bank and begins to
RIP
descent.
Pilot either forgot or was unaware of system limitations
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On the Ground
 Checklists
 Various calculators
▪ DA, take-off and landing
performance
 Airport information
 Frequencies
 Taxi diagrams
 Decision making tools
91.103
Preflight
 §In
the Air
action.
 Positional awareness
Each pilot in command
 Routing
MFD
shall,
beforeonbeginning
a
 Terrain
awareness
flight,
become
familiar
with
all available
 Obstacles
information
▪ Only the concerning
ones known
that
flight.
 Tons
of flight data info
 Approach plates
 Flight directors
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On the Ground
§ 91.103 Preflight
 Checklists
action.
 Various
Each
pilot in calculators
command
DA, take-off
and landing
shall,▪ before
beginning
a
performance
flight, become
familiar
 Airport
information
with
all available
information
concerning
 Frequencies
that
flight.
 Taxi
diagrams
 Decision making tools

In the Air
 Positional awareness
 Routing on MFD
 Terrain awareness
AND A LOT OF BUTTONS
Obstacles
▪ Only the ones known
 Tons of flight data info
 Approach plates
 Flight directors
How messing with these things can mess you up
The 5 Ps
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Distraction
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Time
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Illusion
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Demonstration part one
 Read words left to right
RED
GREEN
BLUE
RED
GREEN
BLUE
RED
GREEN
BLUE
RED
GREEN
GREEN
BLUE
GREEN
RED
BLUE
GREEN
BLUE
GREEN
RED
RED
BLUE
RED
RED
BLUE
RED
BLUE
GREEN
BLUE
GREEN
RED
GREEN
RED
GREEN
BLUE
RED
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Now…
 Tell me the color of the words (left to right
again), not what the words say
RED
GREEN
BLUE
RED
GREEN
BLUE
RED
GREEN
BLUE
RED
GREEN
GREEN
BLUE
GREEN
RED
BLUE
GREEN
BLUE
GREEN
RED
RED
BLUE
RED
RED
BLUE
RED
BLUE
GREEN
BLUE
GREEN
RED
GREEN
RED
GREEN
BLUE
RED
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Simple Task
Small Distraction
Compartmentalize and Defeat
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On next slide:
 Count the number of tennis balls
35”

15 seconds to 2 minutes
Distraction over time = SD
How long since you have looked at the ADI?
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“Time slowed down”
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White Shirts - Bounce Passes?
White Shirts - Overhead Passes?
Notice anything odd?
Watch again.
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Sometimes called “Misorientation”
Unrecognized by definition
Distraction may not be strong
Lasts a relatively long time
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“I just put one of those digital engine
monitors in, it’s more important now than
anything else, even the attitude indicator.”
“That’s not what I wanted to do!”
“What is it doing now?”
“Why is it doing that?”
“How would you do that?”
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You are inbound to the IF/IAF and get a
routing change, holding, different approach,
etc.
The autopilot is not doing the right thing so
you disconnect it while you troubleshoot the
avionics and set up for the procedure.
Hand-flying / Buttons / Distraction
 All the ingredients for spatial disorientation
are there!
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If you feel behind, FLY THE AIRPLANE first,
slow down and catch up or hold.
Find out where you need to go, you should
know where you are at all times, shouldn’t
you?
If you can’t figure it out, ask for help.
 Use good Resource Management . ATC is a
resource too!
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Positional Awareness
 A Map
▪ IFR Low/High Chart, VFR Sectional
▪ MFD Display
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Approach Guidance
 Approach Plates
▪ Paper Copy
▪ MFD Display
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Single Pilot
No Formal Training Program
Self taught on how to use equipment
No Company SOP
No go / no-go rules
No QA
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Solid preflight planning
 Take off/landing data, density altitude, weather,
alternates etc is all known before boarding
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Specific way to set up COM and NAV
Specific way to program FMS, GPS, INS, etc.
 Departure, route, arrival, approach
▪ Confirm / Cross Check
▪ Clean up the box
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Departure, Arrival, Approach
 Brief / Compare / Confirm
DEPARTURE PREP
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COM 1:
APPROACH PREP
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COM 1:
 TWR – ACTIVE
 APR – ACTIVE
 DEP – STBY
 TWR – STBY
COM 2:

COM 2:
 Get Clearance, then
 GND – ACTIVE
 GND – ACTIVE
 ATIS – STBY
 ATIS - STBY
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Weather
Alternates
NOTAMS
TOLD
SID / STAR
Include GPS NOTAMS
Include NavData Notices
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Approach Checklist
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Approach Briefing
 Weather
 Minimums
 Holding
 Altimeter/Airspeeds
 Obtain Clearance
 Initial Rate of Descent
 Letdown Plate Review
 Lost Communications
 Descent check
 Missed Approach
 Speeds
 Alternates
 Navaids
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Develop a flow that works for you
 Set up cockpit the same way every time
 Set up departure, route, arrival and approach
▪ the same way every time
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Know your systems, interfaces and limitations
 Aircraft, avionics, FMS, autopilot and GPS
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Develop and use your checklist
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Become familiar with the program
Give some thought on how to set up iPad for
 Ground operations
 Departure
 Enroute
 Approach and landing
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"Don't let your aircraft get anywhere your brain
hasn't been to 3 minutes earlier.“
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"Prior Planning Prevents Poor Performance“
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"THINK"
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Hans-Peter Schuele
Web:
http://www.signalcharlie.net/H.-P.+Schuele
Email:
[email protected]

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