3 Major Religions of SW Asia (The Middle East) SS7G8 The student will describe the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southwest Asia (Middle East). c. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East): Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. d. Explain the reason for the division between Sunni and Shia Muslims. Turkey Lebanon Syria Iraq Israel Iran Afghanistan Kuwait Jordan Bahrain Saudi Arabia Qatar United Arab Emirates Oman Yemen Yemen History • All three religions of this region originated in Southwest Asia – Judaism – Christianity – Islam • All three religions are monotheistic – Meaning you believe in only one god • Each religion also has its own sacred text, or book, which stand at the center of their beliefs. Brief History of Judaism Click here for the brief history of Judaism (Internet required) Judaism Judaism- facts is the oldest of the three religions. 2000 BCE Sacred book: The Torah Part of the Hebrew Bible is made up of five books called the Torah which talk about Jewish laws and history Judaism-facts Central belief: one day a human leader will come as a messenger from God and restore the greatness of Israel. This leader is called the messiah Also : Belief in one god, justice, righteousness, and law Judaism- facts Also central to the Jewish religion are the ideas of justice and righteousness in dealing with people Place of Worship: Synagogue Jewish Holidays: Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Hanukkah and Passover Judaism- origin Abraham is considered the father of the Jewish people. God came to Abraham and told him to leave his home in Ur (today’s Iraq) and move his family to Canaan (today’s Israel), which he promised to Abraham and his descendents • This is why Jews believe that Israel is considered their “promise land”. • Judaism originated in Israel Judaism- origin The Hebrews (Jewish people) lived in Canaan for many years but eventually… The Hebrew people began to migrate to Egypt- probably because of a famine in the area In Egypt they were forced into slavery by the Pharaoh. The Hebrews were eventually freed from slavery by Moses This was called the Exodus Judaism- origins continued Moses -> The Jewish people eventually made their way back to Canaan, but were forced off their land by invaders. The scattering of Jews outside of Israel is known as the Diaspora. The fight for Israel will continue for many years….. which we will come back to later!!! A Brief History of Christianity Click here for the video (internet required) Christianity- facts The Christian religion grew out Judaism. Holy book: The Bible—made up OLD & NEW Testaments—Gospels are parts of the life of Jesus – It is made up of two parts the Old Testament (which is very similar to the Hebrew Bible) and the New Testament (stories of the life and teachings of Jesus and the early history of the Christian religion Christianity- facts Place of worship: Church The central belief is: that Jesus is the messiah and died for the sins of man and will return one day to restore the greatness of Israel. Christianity- origins Origin-1st Century CE Jesus of Nazareth was born in Bethlehem and raised a Jewish boy. At the age of 30 he began to teach ideas that challenged the authority of political and religious leaders – He believed that the old laws should be replaced by a simpler system based on love of one’s fellow human beings Christianity- origins The Jewish leaders fearing loss of power asked the Romans to arrest him Jesus was crucified (nailed to a cross) by the Romans Christianity- origin con. After his resurrection, Jesus stayed with his 12 disciples (or apostles) to teach them so they could continue what he had started. 12 apostles spread Jesus’ word after he died As Christianity continued to spread and become popular the Roman leaders became worried. Christians were often arrested or killed for refusing to worship the gods of Rome; forcing many to practice the Christian religion in hiding. Christianity- origin con. Though the religion was made illegal, it continued to grow and spread Eventually reaching members of the Roman Emperor himself- Constantine. – 313 C.E.- Going into battle he had his soldiers fight with the Christian symbol- they won the battle. – Shortly after Constantine he removed bans against the practice of Christianity and formed a council of Christian leaders to help unify the religion A Brief Introduction to Islam Click here for the video (Internet required) Islam- Facts The Third religion to develop Origin: 622 CE Its holy book is called the: Qur’an Place of Worship: Mosque Islam Facts The central belief Allah is their God and Muhammad is the prophet & founder! The Five Pillars – Five main beliefs 1. Believe in only one God and Muhammad 2. Pray in the direction of Mecca 5 times a day 3. Give money to the poor 4. Fast during the holy month of Ramadan 5. Make a journey (Hajj) to Mecca (Saudi Arabia) at least once Mecca- Saudi Arabia Islam- origin Muhammad was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. At the age of 40 the angel Gabriel (a figure from the Hebrew Bible) appeared to Muhammad while he was praying in a cave The angel gave him messages from Allah, which he began spreading the teaching of Islam throughout parts of the Middle East. Islam Branches There are TWO branches of Islam: Sunni: 90% of the world Muslims, DO NOT believe you have to be related to Muhammad to be a supreme leader Shia: 10% of the world Muslim population, DO BELIEVE you have to be related to Muhammad to be a supreme leader (tend to be more strict) The majority of people living in the Middle East (Southwest Asia) follow ISLAM. Since all 3 major monotheistic religions originated in the Middle East…what are some problems that could arise because of this?