What is rhetoric? The art or science of using language in prose or poetry, including figurative language. I would write: Rhetoric: the art of using language Style Style is the author’s unique way of expressing his/her ideas. Style is affected by word choice, voice, sentence structure, and the use of conventions. Two authors’ styles can be as different as their speaking voices or signatures. Writers may change his/her style for different types of writing and for different audiences Diction Diction is a writer’s word choice Why does word choice matter? All words have 2 meanings: Denotation verses Connotation Denotation is a word’s dictionary definition. Connotation is a word’s emotional overtones. Aggressive and assertive have different connotations. One is positive and the other is negative. Denotation vs. Connotation Think of the following terms from The Giver and how their denotations and connotations compared. The Giver Commonly used word Dwelling Newchild Learning community House/ home Baby School The denotation was the same but the words from the book lacked emotional connection. Formal English Contains carefully written, complete sentences Avoids contractions (no contractions) Follows grammar rules (correct grammar) Uses sophisticated vocabulary (big words) *Tone may vary (tone varies) Informal English Uses everyday speech Uses popular expressions Uses contractions Uses some sentence fragments Tone may vary (tone varies) Formal or Informal? Using a t-chart, list the following types of writing as formal or informal: 1. Written report 2. Essay 3. Conversations with friends 4. Interview 5. Debate 6. Oral report 7. Personal letter 8. Class notes 9. Journal entries 10. Text messaging ENGLISH Language-My how you’ve changed… Where is it okay to use text abbreviations? The Internet Email (informal) Text messaging Blogs and blogging (web+ log= blog) How Well Do You Know Texting? You might know quite a few text abbreviations, but c if u no the less common ones 2. Common: 1. Be right back. 1. brb 2. I don’t know. 2. idk 3. cya 3. See you. 4. Laughing out loud. 4. lol 5. sup 5. What’s up? 6. afk 6. Away from keyboard. 7. rofl 7. Rolling on the floor laughing. 8. tyvm 8. Thank you very much. 9. ur 9. You’re… 10. asap 10. As soon as possible. How Well Do You Know Texting? Less common: 1. ucmu 2. ttfn 3. aota 4. imho 5. aytmtb 6. crbt 7. tbd 8. wysiwyg 9. fomcl 10. wdalyic Solutions Less common: 1. ucmu You crack me up. 2. ttfn Ta ta for now. 3. aota All of the above. 4. imho In my humble opinion. 5. aytmtb And you’re telling me this because… 6. crbt Crying really big tears. 7. tbd To be decided. 8. wysiwyg What you see is what you get. 9. fomcl Falling off my chair laughing. 10. wdalyic Who died and left you in charge? Dialects Everyone speaks with a dialect of some sort. A dialect is the accent and vocabulary of a particular region. If our parents are from a different region than where we’re raised, we might speak a combination of dialects. Say what? What do you call the following things? • Syrup • Caramel apples Possible answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Frosting/icing Sneakers/running shoes/sneaks/tennis shoes Faucet/spigot/tap Grocery store/supermarket/food store Soda/pop/coke Pizza/pie The beach/ the shore/ down the shore Lollipop/ sucker/taffy Hoagie/sub Syrup/(pronounced ser-up or seer-up) Caramel (pronounced car’-muhl or ca’ra-mell) Dialectal Regions of the U.S. 1. North 2. Northeast 3. West 4. Midwest 5. South What influences my dialect/speech? Where you grew up People around you Parents Siblings Friends Teachers TV/ Internet Literature Music Slang Slang is invented words or existing words given a new meaning. You know lots of slang for your generation, but do you know these older slang expressions? 1. Can you dig it? 2. That is so far out! 3. I’ll catch ya on the flip-side. 4. Keep on truckin’! 5. Wow, that is really heavy news, man. 6. Can you loan me some bread? 7. He’s totally bugged out. 8. Gimme some skin. 9. She is hip to the groove. 10. Man, I dig your new threads. Slang Solutions (60’s to 70’s) Can you dig it? Do you understand? That is so far out! That is amazing! I’ll catch you on the flip side. I’ll see you later. Keep on truckin! Good luck! That is really heavy news, man. That is depressing news. Can you loan me some bread? Can I borrow some money? He is totally bugged out. He’s not feeling well. Gimme some skin. Hit my hand with your hand so that we may bond. 9. She is hip to the groove. She understands. 10. Man, I dig your new threads. I really like your new clothes. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Digital Slang See if you know what these digital-age slang terms mean: 1. Mistext 2. Autoincorrect 3. Phone tag 4. Spam 5. Dead text 6. Snope 7. Google dance 8. Serp Solutions Mistext: text sent in error Autoincorrect: when text is incorrectly fixed Phone tag: calling back and forth with no answer Spam: unwanted messages Dead text: text that does not need a response/irrelevant 6. Snope: to inform someone that an email is spam/fake. Refers to the website snopes.com. 7. Google dance: When google changes the SERP. 8. SERP: Search Engine Result Page 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Understanding Colloquialisms and Idioms A colloquialism is a word or phrase used in everyday conversation. Colloquialisms are generally informal and can include dialect and slang. Idioms are common expressions with a meaning that varies from what the individual words mean. Many idioms are metaphors. Idioms are also an important part of dialects and are often considered part of colloquial speech. Idioms What do these phrases mean? 1. Back seat driver 2. Cash on the barrelhead 3. Dead as a doornail 4. Face the music 5. Have an axe to grind 6. Head over heels in love 7. Kick the bucket 8. Make a bee-line for something 9. Saved by the bell 10. Set your teeth on edge Idiom Solutions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Back seat driver: someone who tells the driver what to do Cash on the barrelhead: cash up front Dead as a doornail: no chance of being alive Face the music: accept the consequences Have an axe to grind: hold a grudge Head over heels in love: completely in love Kick the bucket: to die Make a bee-line for something: to hurry Saved by the bell: saved at the last moment Set your teeth on edge: to make you anxious or worried See What You’ve Learned Open your language book to page 10 and complete exercise 1. Then, turn to page 23 and do exercise 1.