Session 2

Report
FTCE SAE
BIOLOGY PREPARATION COURSE
Instructor
Valerie Ruwe
[email protected]
SESSION NORMS
No side bars
 Work on assigned materials only
 Keep phone on vibrate only
 If a call must be taken please leave the room to
do so

SESSION AGENDA
Session I: Pre-Test, Competencies 1 & 2
 Session II: Competencies 3,4
 Session III: Competencies 5,6
 Session IV: Competencies 7,8
 Session V: Competencies 9,10

3. KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHEMICAL
PROCESSES OF LIVING THINGS12 %
1.
Identify the structures, functions, and importance of inorganic and organic
compounds (e.g., water, mineral salts, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic
acids) in cells
2.
Compare and apply the laws of thermodynamics to living systems, including
the role of enzymes in biological reactions
3.
Predict the effects of changes in pH, temperature, substrate concentration,
and enzyme concentration on enzyme activity
4.
Identify substrates, products, and relationships between glycolysis, Krebs
cycle, and electron transport, including the respiration of carbohydrates, fats,
and amino acids
5.
Compare end products and energy yields of alcoholic fermentation, lactic acid
fermentation, and aerobic respiration.
6.
Identify the raw materials and products of C-3 photosynthesis, including the
Calvin cycle, light dependent and light independent reactions, and factors
that affect their rate
7.
Identify key differences between C-3, C-4, and CAM photosynthesis, and the
ecological significance of these pathways
3. KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHEMICAL
PROCESSES OF LIVING THINGS12 %
8.
Identify and analyze the process of chemiosmosis in photosynthesis and
respiration
9.
Compare heterotrophy and autotrophy and the roles of these processes in the
environment
10.
Define antigen and antibody and recognize the antigen-antibody reaction
11.
Compare active and passive immunity, identifying the positive and negative
effects of vaccines and inoculations
12.
Evaluate the roles of cell recognition (e.g., cell-to-cell signaling, autoimmune
diseases, tissue rejection, cancer, pollen/stigma-style interaction) in normal
and abnormal cell activity
13.
Identify the effect of environmental factors on the biochemistry of living
things (e.g., UV light effects on melanin and vitamin D production).
14.
Identify the roles of ATP and ADP in cellular processes
15.
Compare chemosynthetic and photosynthetic processes and the roles of
organisms using these processes in the ecosystem
16.
Identify cell-to-cell communication in living things (e.g., electrical, molecular,
ionic)
IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES, FUNCTIONS, AND IMPORTANCE OF
INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (E.G., WATER, MINERAL
SALTS, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS) IN
CELLS

Water in Living Things




Ice Floats
Water is a solvent
Water has high specific
heat capacity
Water has high heat of
vaporization





Evaporative Cooling
Cohesion
Adhesion
Water held together by
polar covalent bond
Between water molecules
hydrogen bonding.
IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES, FUNCTIONS, AND IMPORTANCE OF
INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (E.G., WATER, MINERAL
SALTS, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS) IN
CELLS

Minerals
Inorganic
Compounds
 Cofactors for
enzymes


Vitamins
Organic Compounds
 Coenymes for
enzymes

IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES, FUNCTIONS, AND IMPORTANCE OF
INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (E.G., WATER, MINERAL
SALTS, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS) IN
CELLS



Monomers are small molecules which may be joined together in a
repeating fashion to form more complex molecules called polymers.
A polymer may be a natural or synthetic macromolecule comprised of
repeating units of a smaller molecule (monomers).
Dehydration (Condensation)



A process of linking monomers, called dehydration condensation, involves the
removal of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom to form water.
One way this might happen is where several generic monomers are
shown with -OH groups that could be used for linking.
Hydrolysis

A process of breaking down polymers, called hydrolysis, involves the insertion
of water.
IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES, FUNCTIONS, AND IMPORTANCE OF
INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (E.G., WATER, MINERAL
SALTS, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS) IN
CELLS





Carbohydrates are organic
compounds made of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in
the proportion of 1:2:1.
The building blocks of
carbohydrates are single
sugars, called monosaccharides,
such as glucose, C6H12O6, and
fructose.
Disaccharides are double sugars
formed when two
monosaccharides are joined
Polysaccharides such as
starch,are chains of three or
more monosaccharide's.
Glysocidc Linkage
IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES, FUNCTIONS, AND IMPORTANCE OF
INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (E.G., WATER, MINERAL
SALTS, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS) IN
CELLS





Lipids are nonpolar molecules that are not soluble in
water. They include fats, phospholipids, steroids, and
waxes.
Fats are lipids that store energy.
Triglyceride: A typical fat contains three fatty acids bonded
to a glycerol molecule backbone.
Ester Bonds
Phospholipids
Head: phosphate group (choline) which is hydrophilic
 Tail: two fatty acids which are hydrophobic
 Make Up Cell Membrane

IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES, FUNCTIONS, AND IMPORTANCE OF
INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (E.G., WATER, MINERAL
SALTS, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS) IN
CELLS
IMPORTANCE OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS (E.G., WATER, MINERAL SALTS,
CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC
ACIDS) IN CELLS
Proteins
 A protein is a large molecule formed by linked
smaller molecules called amino acids.



Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
Twenty different amino acids are found in
proteins.

Buiret test runs lilac when positive for protein.

Peptide Bond: between amino & carboxylic group
Unit 1
STRUCTURE OF
PROTEINS
IMPORTANCE OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS (E.G., WATER, MINERAL SALTS,
CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS)
IN CELLS




Nucleic Acids
There are two types of nucleic acids—DNA and
RNA—and each type contains four kinds of
nucleotides. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, consists of
two strands of nucleotides that spiral around each
other.
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, consists of a single strand of
nucleotides.
Nucleotide: phosphate group + Pentose Sugar +
nitrogenous base


Pentose Sugar: DNA (deoxyribose) & RNA(ribose)
Nitrogenous Base

Purines (Double Rings)


Adenine & Guanine
Pyrminidines (Single Rings)

Cytosine, Thymine, & Uracil
Unit 1
Section Chemistry of Cells
STRUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACIDS
IDENTIFY THE ROLES OF ATP AND ADP IN
CELLULAR PROCESSES


ATP or adenosine triphosphate, is a single
nucleotide with two extra energy-storing
phosphate groups.
When food molecules are broken down inside
cells, some of the energy in the molecules is
stored temporarily in ATP.
IDENTIFY THE ROLES OF ATP AND ADP IN
CELLULAR PROCESSES
COMPARE AND APPLY THE LAWS OF
THERMODYNAMICS TO LIVING SYSTEMS, INCLUDING
THE ROLE OF ENZYMES IN BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS
COMPARE AND APPLY THE LAWS OF
THERMODYNAMICS TO LIVING SYSTEMS, INCLUDING
THE ROLE OF ENZYMES IN BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS
The energy needed to start a chemical reaction is
called activation energy.
 Even in a chemical reaction that releases energy,
activation energy must be supplied before the
reaction can occur.
 Enzymes are substances that increase the speed
of chemical reactions.

Most enzymes are proteins.
 Enzymes are catalysts, which are substances that
reduce the activation energy of a chemical reaction.
 Substrate specific

COMPARE AND APPLY THE LAWS OF
THERMODYNAMICS TO LIVING SYSTEMS, INCLUDING
THE ROLE OF ENZYMES IN BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS
PREDICT THE EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN PH,
TEMPERATURE, SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION, AND
ENZYME CONCENTRATION ON ENZYME ACTIVITY


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

Temperature and pH value can alter an enzymes
effectiveness.
The enzymes that are active at any one time in a cell
determine what happens in that cell.
An enzyme’s shape determines its activity. Typically,
an enzyme is a large protein with one or more deep
folds on its surface. These folds form pockets called
active sites.
Enzyme inhibitors: are molecules that interact in
some way with the enzyme to prevent it from working
in the normal manner.
Non-specific methods of inhibition include any
physical or chemical changes which ultimately
denatures the protein portion of the enzyme and are
therefore irreversible.
COMPARE HETEROTROPHY AND AUTOTROPHY AND
THE ROLES OF THESE PROCESSES
IN THE ENVIRONMENT
 Temperature and pH value can alter an enzymes Directly or
indirectly, almost all of the energy in living systems needed for
metabolism comes from the sun.
 Metabolism involves either using energy to build molecules or
breaking down molecules in which energy is stored.
 Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is converted to
chemical energy.
 Organisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in
inorganic substances to make organic compounds are called
autotrophs.
 The chemical energy in organic compounds can be transferred to
other organic compounds or to organisms that consume food.
 Organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from
sunlight or inorganic substances are called Heterotrophs.
 Cellular respiration is a metabolic process similar to burning fuel.
COMPARE CHEMOSYNTHETIC AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC
PROCESSES AND THE ROLES OF ORGANISMS USING
THESE PROCESSES IN THE ECOSYSTEM
 Ecosystems depend upon the ability of
some organisms to convert inorganic
compounds into food that other
organisms can then exploit.
 In most cases, primary food
production occurs in a process called
photosynthesis, which is powered by
sunlight.
 In a few environments, primary
production happens though a process
called chemosynthesis, which runs on
chemical energy. Together,
photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
fuel all life on Earth.
 The diagram below compares
examples of these two processes chemosynthesis in a seafloor
hydrothermal vent bacterium, and
photosynthesis in a terrestrial plant.
IDENTIFY THE RAW MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS OF C-3
PHOTOSYNTHESIS, INCLUDING THE CALVIN CYCLE, LIGHT
DEPENDENT AND LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS, AND
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THEIR RATE
The Stages of Photosynthesis
Stage 1 Energy is captured from sunlight.
Stage 2 Light energy is converted to chemical energy,
which is temporarily stored in ATP and the energy
carrier molecule NADPH.
Stage 3 The chemical energy stored in ATP and
NADPH powers the formation of organic compounds,
using carbon dioxide, CO2.
IDENTIFY THE RAW MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS OF C-3
PHOTOSYNTHESIS, INCLUDING THE CALVIN CYCLE, LIGHT
DEPENDENT AND LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS, AND
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THEIR RATE
Chapter 5
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAINS OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
IDENTIFY THE RAW MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS OF C-3
PHOTOSYNTHESIS, INCLUDING THE CALVIN CYCLE, LIGHT
DEPENDENT AND LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS, AND
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THEIR RATE
Factors that Affect Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is directly affected by various
environmental factors.
In general, the rate of photosynthesis increases as
light intensity increases until all the pigments are
being used.
Photosynthesis is most efficient within a certain range
of temperatures.
IDENTIFY KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN C-3, C-4, AND
CAM PHOTOSYNTHESIS,
AND THE ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THESE
PATHWAYS
IDENTIFY KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN C-3, C-4, AND
CAM PHOTOSYNTHESIS,
AND THE ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THESE
PATHWAYS
IDENTIFY SUBSTRATES, PRODUCTS, AND RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN GLYCOLYSIS, KREBS CYCLE, AND ELECTRON
TRANSPORT, INCLUDING THE RESPIRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES,
FATS, AND AMINO ACIDS
Cellular respiration occurs in two stages:
Stage 1 Glucose is converted to pyruvate, producing a
small amount of ATP and NADH.
Stage 2 When oxygen is present, pyruvate and NADH
are used to make a large amount of ATP. When oxygen
is not present, pyruvate is converted to either lactate
or ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Chapter 5
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
IDENTIFY SUBSTRATES, PRODUCTS, AND RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN GLYCOLYSIS, KREBS CYCLE, AND ELECTRON
TRANSPORT, INCLUDING THE RESPIRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES,
FATS, AND AMINO ACIDS
Glycolysis
In the first stage of cellular
respiration, glucose is broken down
in the cytoplasm during a process
called glycolysis.
As glucose is broken down, some of
its hydrogen atoms are transferred
to an electron acceptor called
NAD+. This forms an electron
carrier called NADH.
IDENTIFY SUBSTRATES, PRODUCTS, AND RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN GLYCOLYSIS, KREBS CYCLE, AND ELECTRON
TRANSPORT, INCLUDING THE RESPIRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES,
FATS, AND AMINO ACIDS
Krebs Cycle
Acetyl-CoA enters a series of enzyme-assisted reactions
called the Krebs cycle, which follows five steps:
 Step 1 Acetyl-CoA combines with a four-carbon compound,
forming a six-carbon compound and releasing coenzyme A.
 Step 2 Carbon dioxide is released from the six-carbon
compound, forming a five-carbon compound. Electrons are
transferred to NAD+, making a molecule of NADH.
 Step 3 Carbon dioxide is released from the compound. A
molecule of ATP and a molecule of NADH are made.
 Step 4 The existing four-carbon compound is converted to a
new four-carbon compound. Electrons are transferred to an
electron acceptor called FAD, making a molecule of FADH2,
another type of electron carrier.
 Step 5 The new four-carbon compound is then converted to the
four-carbon compound that began the cycle. Another molecule
of NADH is produced.
Chapter 5
KREBS CYCLE
IDENTIFY SUBSTRATES, PRODUCTS, AND RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN GLYCOLYSIS, KREBS CYCLE, AND ELECTRON
TRANSPORT, INCLUDING THE RESPIRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES,
FATS, AND AMINO ACIDS
Electron Transport Chain
In aerobic respiration, electrons donated by NADH
and FADH2 pass through an electron transport
chain.
In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain is
located in the inner membranes of mitochondria.
At the end of the electron transport chain, hydrogen
ions and spent electrons combine with oxygen
molecules forming water molecules.
Chapter 5
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN OF AEROBIC
RESPIRATION
COMPARE END PRODUCTS AND ENERGY YIELDS OF ALCOHOLIC
FERMENTATION, LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION, AND AEROBIC
RESPIRATION
When oxygen is not present, NAD+ is recycled in
another way. Under anaerobic conditions, electrons
carried by NADH are transferred to pyruvate
produced during glycolysis.
This process recycles NAD+ needed to continue
making ATP through glycolysis.
The recycling of NAD+ using an organic hydrogen
acceptor is called fermentation
COMPARE END PRODUCTS AND ENERGY YIELDS OF ALCOHOLIC
FERMENTATION, LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION, AND AEROBIC
RESPIRATION
Lactic Acid and Alcoholic Fermentation
When oxygen is not present, cells recycle NAD+
through fermentation.
IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE THE PROCESS OF
CHEMIOSMOSIS IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND
RESPIRATION
IDENTIFY THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
ON THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF LIVING
THINGS (E.G., UV LIGHT EFFECTS ON MELANIN AND
VITAMIN D PRODUCTION)



Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells in the stratum basale, the deepest
layer of skin tissue.
Everyone has about the same number of melanocytes; what causes variations
in skin color is the amount of melanin, or pigment, these cells produce and how
spread out the pigment is from the center of the cell.
Also, in darker-skinned people, the melanin breaks down more slowly, and is
seen in all the layers of the skin, whereas in fair-skinned people, it breaks
down quickly and is rarely seen above the stratum basale.
IDENTIFY THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
ON THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF LIVING
THINGS (E.G., UV LIGHT EFFECTS ON MELANIN AND
VITAMIN D PRODUCTION)



Vitamin D is a fat-soluble
vitamin that is naturally
present in very few foods,
added to others, and available
as a dietary supplement. It is
also produced endogenously
when ultraviolet rays from
sunlight strike the skin and
trigger vitamin D synthesis.
Vitamin D obtained from sun
exposure, food, and
supplements
Vitamin D promotes calcium
absorption in the gut and
maintains adequate serum
calcium and phosphate
concentrations to enable
normal mineralization of bone
IDENTIFY CELL-TO-CELL COMMUNICATION IN LIVING
THINGS (E.G., ELECTRICAL, MOLECULAR, IONIC)

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In multicellular organisms like us, cellto-cell communication is of prime
importance for proper development and
function of the organisms as a whole.
Cells communicate with each other by
different means.
Adjacent cells can communicate via cell
surface molecules or via specific
junctions that allow the exchange of
solutes or the propagation of changes in
membrane potential.
Cells that are not in direct contact with
each other may communicate via soluble
messenger molecules.
Once released, a messenger molecule
acts on other cells that are responsive to
it (target cells).
In general, responsiveness requires the
presence of specific receptors for the
messenger molecule at the target cell.
EVALUATE THE ROLES OF CELL
RECOGNITION (E.G., CELL-TO-CELL
SIGNALING, AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES,
TISSUE REJECTION, CANCER,
POLLEN/STIGMA-STYLE INTERACTION) IN
NORMAL AND ABNORMAL CELL ACTIVITY
cell-to-cell recognition
 (glycoproteins)

EVALUATE THE ROLES OF CELL RECOGNITION (E.G., CELL-TOCELL SIGNALING, AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, TISSUE REJECTION,
CANCER, POLLEN/STIGMA-STYLE INTERACTION) IN NORMAL AND
ABNORMAL CELL ACTIVITY
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ny person (or animal) that develops an autoAimmune disease, discovers that a certain
part of his body, or many parts, become
inflamed and painful. What is happening is
that the cells of the Immune System are
attacking those cells of the body that the
Immune System considers “foreign.”
Normally, the cells of the Immune System
recognize all the cells of the body and do not
consider them “foreign cells.” Normally, no
cells of the body are attacked by the Immune
System. The Immune System is “trained” by a
gland called the Thymus Gland to recognize
all the cells of its own body. This “training” is
still not completely understood.
However, the cells of the Immune System
normally recognizes the body’s cells and only
attacks “foreign” cells.
This extremely delicate situation is changed in
people with “Auto-Immune” diseases, and the
Immune System attacks specific cells of the
body, thereby creating over 80 different
diseases.
EVALUATE THE ROLES OF CELL RECOGNITION (E.G., CELL-TOCELL SIGNALING, AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, TISSUE REJECTION,
CANCER, POLLEN/STIGMA-STYLE INTERACTION) IN NORMAL AND
ABNORMAL CELL ACTIVITY



Transplant rejection is a process in
which a transplant recipient's immune
system attacks the transplanted organ
or tissue.
These harmful substances have proteins
called antigens on their surfaces. As
soon as these antigens enter the body,
the immune system recognizes them as
foreign and attacks them.
In the same way, an organ that is not
matched can trigger a blood transfusion
reaction or transplant rejection. To help
prevent this reaction, doctors "type"
both the organ donor and the person
who is receiving the organ. The more
similar the antigens are between the
donor and recipient, the less likely that
the organ will be rejected.
EVALUATE THE ROLES OF CELL RECOGNITION (E.G., CELL-TOCELL SIGNALING, AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, TISSUE REJECTION,
CANCER, POLLEN/STIGMA-STYLE INTERACTION) IN NORMAL AND
ABNORMAL CELL ACTIVITY
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
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Most antigens expressed by human
cancer cells and recognized by host
T cells and antibodies are
nonmutated self antigens —
molecules also expressed on the
surface of normal cells.
These self antigens are ineffective
at triggering immune responses
against cancer cells, which provides
one explanation for the difficulties
in trying to immunize against
human cancer.
A new study describes how tumors
can avoid recognition by the
immune system and how
enhancing the affinity of the
interaction between a self antigen
and the MHC-I molecule may lead
to cancer immunity.
DEFINE ANTIGEN AND ANTIBODY AND RECOGNIZE THE ANTIGENANTIBODY REACTION


Antigens are defined as substances recognized
by the body as foreign, causing the body to
produce an antibody to react specifically with
it
Factors determining whether an antigen will
stimulate an antibody response:

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Degree of foreignness. Only human blood is
transfused to humans.
Size and complexity. Although red cells are
smaller than white blood cells, they tend to
be more antigenic due to the complexity of
the antigens on the cell surface. Some are
proteins and others are oligosaccharides.
Dose of antigen administered. How much
antigen is the individual exposed to and
what is the frequency of that exposure.
Genetic makeup of host may also dictate
whether an antibody is produced. Some
individuals have a greater ability to make
antibody and others have the antigen so they
would not make the antibody.
Antibody: Proteins produced by lymphocytes
as a result of stimulation by an antigen which
can then interact specifically with that
particular antigen.
COMPARE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE IMMUNITY, IDENTIFYING THE
POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF VACCINES AND
INOCULATIONS.


Active Immunity - Vaccines are
used for health purposes to expose
our bodies to a particular antigen.
These antigens are usually killed
or severely weakened to decrease
their potency. After destroying
these pathogens, the body stores
some T cells as memory cells, due
to the fact they code for a
particular antigen and can be when
needed. This memory in T cells can
be a means of artificially acquiring
immunity while a genuine attack
by a pathogen is a naturally
acquired type of immunity.
Passive Immunity - This is where
immunity to particular antigens as
a result of genetic traits passed on
from parents rendering the
offspring immune to a particular
pathogenic threat.
COMPARE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE IMMUNITY, IDENTIFYING THE
POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF VACCINES AND
INOCULATIONS.

A substance used to
stimulate the production
of antibodies and provide
immunity against one or
several diseases,
prepared from the
causative agent of a
disease, its products, or a
synthetic substitute,
treated to act as an
antigen without inducing
the disease
BREAK TIME!!!
4. KNOWLEDGE OF THE INTERACTION OF
CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 10 %
1.
Identify and analyze the major events in the development of the cell
theory.
2.
Distinguish between the major structural characteristics of
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
3.
Relate the structure of cell organelles to their functions.
4.
dentify and evaluate the events of each phase of the cell cycle (G1, S,
G2, M) and the regulatory mechanisms of the cycle.
5.
Compare the mechanisms and results of nuclear division
(karyokinesis) and cell division (cytokinesis) in plant and animal
cells.
6.
Compare characteristics of the major taxa (kingdoms/domains),
including cellular characteristics.
7.
Evaluate the relationships between the structures and functions of
cell membrane elements.
8.
Identify and compare active and passive transport mechanisms.
IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE THE MAJOR EVENTS IN THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CELL THEORY.
All living things are
composed of cells
 Cells are the basic units
of structure and function
in living things
 All cells are produced
from other cells

DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE MAJOR STRUCTURAL
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS.
RELATE THE STRUCTURE OF CELL ORGANELLES TO THEIR
FUNCTIONS.
IDENTIFY AND EVALUATE THE EVENTS OF EACH PHASE OF THE
CELL CYCLE (G1, S, G2, M) AND THE REGULATORY MECHANISMS
OF THE CYCLE.




There is an independent cell cycle
control system made up of proteins
that are different from the effector
proteins that directly perform
mitosis, G1, DNA replication, or
G2.
Brakes that can stop the cycle at
specific checkpoints (a.k.a
restriction points) regulate the
control system.
At checkpoints, feedback signals
conveying information about the
effector processes, or extracellular
signals, can delay progress of the
control system itself, so as to
prevent it from triggering the next
effector process before the previous
one is finished.
The two major checkpoints occur at
G1, just before entry into S phase,
and at G2 shortly before mitosis.
IDENTIFY AND EVALUATE THE EVENTS OF EACH PHASE OF THE
CELL CYCLE (G1, S, G2, M) AND THE REGULATORY MECHANISMS
OF THE CYCLE.


The proteins involved in
regulating cell division events
no longer appropriately drive
progression from one cell cycle
stage to the next. Rather than
lacking function, cancer cells
reproduce at a rate far beyond
the normally tightly regulated
boundaries of the cell cycle.
Cells that progress through
the cell cycle unchecked may
eventually form malignant
tumors, where masses of cells
grow and divide
uncontrollably, then develop
the ability to spread and
migrate throughout the body.
COMPARE THE MECHANISMS AND RESULTS OF NUCLEAR
DIVISION (KARYOKINESIS) AND CELL DIVISION (CYTOKINESIS) IN
PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS

Mitosis is division of the
nucleus


Interphase, Prophase,
Metaphase, Anaphase,
Telophase
Cytokensis division of
the cytoplasm
COMPARE THE MECHANISMS AND RESULTS OF NUCLEAR
DIVISION (KARYOKINESIS) AND CELL DIVISION (CYTOKINESIS) IN
PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS
COMPARE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAJOR TAXA
(KINGDOMS/DOMAINS) INCLUDING CELLULAR CHARACTERISTICS
EVALUATE THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE STRUCTURES AND
FUNCTIONS OF CELL MEMBRANE ELEMENTS.
1. Channel Proteins - form small openings for molecules to difuse
through
2. Carrier Proteins- binding site on protein surface "grabs" certain
molecules and pulls them into the cell
3. Receptor Proteins - molecular triggers that set off cell responses (such
as release of hormones or opening of channel proteins)
4. Cell Recognition Proteins - ID tags, to idenitfy cells to the body's
immune system
5. Enzymatic Proteins - carry out metabolic reactions
IDENTIFY AND COMPARE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSPORT
MECHANISMS.
•PASSIVE TRANSPORT:
•no ATP required; moves from high concentration toward low naturally
•
•
•
simple diffusion
facilitated diffusion
osmosis
IDENTIFY AND COMPARE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSPORT
MECHANISMS.
ACTIVE
TRANSPORT:
requires ATP to
move items against
the concentration
gradient from low
toward high

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