C1.1 Fundamentals of Chemistry

Report
“C1.1 Fundamentals
of Chemistry”
Mr Powell 2013
TASK: Logically compare these
word to match the terms
Definitions Match Up
O
H
H
O
Compound
H
N
H
N
Mixture
C
Atom
O O
Molecule
O
Element
A pure substance
The smallest part of all
substances
Two or more of the same or
different atoms chemically
joined together.
Two or more atoms of the
same element chemically
joined
Two or more substances not
chemically joined
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Knowing your terms...

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
A
Think about the task you have just completed.
Here are six groups of atoms to look at. Can
you put a word(s) to describe the groups
chemically from what you previously learned;
A. Elements or
atoms
B. Mixture of
elements or
atoms
C. Compound
D. Mixture of
compounds
E. Compound
F. Mixture of
elements
B
C
D
F
E
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Index
Periodic Table...
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Index
What do you know?
In your book write down all you know
about these items.....
• Gold
• Group 1 Metals
• Group 7 Non-metals
• Structure of an Atom
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Index
C1
1.1
Atoms, Elements and Compounds (page 24)
Lesson Aims/ Levels
1a) All substances are made of atoms which have symbols. (L)
1b) How do we classify atoms (M)
1c) What are groups and what do they mean (M/H)
Literacy: Verbal communications
Low Demand (E-G)
Keywords: atom, neutron, proton, electron,
Standard Demand (B-D) nucleus
High Demand (A*-B)
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Index
The Periodic Table (Video First 15 mins)
Student – “Self Assessed”
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
What is she panning for? (Gold)
Why is gold special? (It does not corrode)
What is the periodic table (a roadmap of all the elements)
Peter Atkins talks about the shiny ones on the left, what do we call these (metals)
What do we call the other side of the table (non-metals)
What is mercury used for? (thermometers / dental fillings)
What state is mercury in at room temperature (liquid)
Name a property of most metals (silvery grey/conduct electricity)
What do the transition metals show in the table (a history of the use of metals bronze, age,
titanium)
10. How does the periodic table show similar elements? (in vertical groups)
11. Name a metal similar to lithium? (sodium, potassium etc..)
12. What properties of gold are useful in making the jewellery? (melts at a low temperature, is
non-reactive.)
13. Why is carbon very useful? (it can form long chains such as DNA)
14. What are some metals are found as ores, how are they extracted (smelting – heating)
15. What happens with group 1 metals when they meet water (they react violently)
16. Why are the more reactive at the bottom of the group? (the outer electrons are shielded)
17. What can group 7 elements be used for? (chemical weapons – Cl reacts with water to form
bleach)
Score
/17 ?????
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Index
I'm Sorry I Haven't got a Clue
Form into a small group of 3-4 people. One person is the
“quizmaster” for a “round” Contestants have 30 seconds to
talk about a topic without...
•
•
•
•
•
Hesitation
Repetition
Stalling
Talking rubbish off topic
Telling lies!
Other contestants can challenge and take the floor, the winner
is the person who finishes the 30s and gets 2 points but
you also get a 1 point for each correct challenge.
Talk about these topics....
• Gold
• Group 1 Metals
• Group 7 Non-metals
• Structure of an Atom
Extension: others ideas from the worksheet!
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Index
Atomic Model – RECAP!
We used to think that atoms
weren't made up of smaller
pieces. The word "atom"
actually comes from a Greek
word which means "can't be
split up".
Now we know that all atoms
are actually made of the same
3 tiny particles; protons,
electrons and neutrons.
The protons are positive and
the electrons are negative.
Neutrons are neutral.
Protons and neutrons are
much heavier than electrons
and they are found in the
middle of the atom called the
nucleus. The electrons are in
orbit around the outside.
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Index
Quick Test....
1. Which particles are found in the nucleus of
an atom?
2. Which particles orbit the nucleus?
3. Which atomic particle has a charge of
+1?
Student – “Self Assessed”
1. protons and
neutrons
2. electrons
3. proton
4. neutron
5. electron
6. electron
4. Which atomic particle has no charge?
5. Which atomic particle has a charge of
−1?
6. Two of the particles each have a mass of
one atomic mass unit. The other has
almost no mass. Which one has almost
no mass?
Mr Powell 2012
Index
C1.1 Book Answers...
Student – “Self Assessed”
In text questions...
a) about 100
b) Because you can combine them together in
millions of different ways.
c) Because an element may have different names in
different languages.
d) metals – barium (Ba), vanadium (V), mercury
(Hg) non-metals – phosphorus (P), krypton (Kr)
(Harder)
Summary Questions
1 atoms, molecule, compounds, bonds
2 In a mixture, the different substances are not joined
to each other by chemical bonds, but in a compound
the atoms are held together tightly by chemical
bonds – this makes them difficult to separate.
(Harder)
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Index
Atomic Model Recap
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
Charge
Neutral
Electrons
Protons
Protons
Nucleus
Atomic
Proton
Nucleons
Nucleus
Mass
Atomic Mass
Write a-l in your book and write in the correct order for
the words.
A*-B – don’t use the word bank (9/12)
C-D - Use the word bank to help you (6/12)
Word BANK
Nucleus, Mass, Protons, Charge, Proton ,Nucleons, Atomic,
Atomic Mass, Protons, Nucleus, Neutral, Electrons
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Index
C1
1.2
Atomic Structure (page 26)
Lesson Aims/ Levels
2) Atoms have a small central nucleus, of protons and neutrons, surrounded by
electrons. (L)
3) The relative electrical charges are +1/-1/0 for proton, electron and neutron
(S)
4) Atoms have no overall electrical charge. (S)
5) All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons (Atomic
Number). (L)
6) The total mass (atomic mass) of an atom is the sum of the number of protons
and neutrons. (S/H)
Low Demand (E-G)
Keywords: charge, relative, atomic number, atomic
Standard Demand (B-D) mass, neutron, proton, electron, nucleus
High Demand (A*-B)
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Index
Modelling....
TASK: Can you create your own particle model for atoms, mixtures &
compounds. Work as a team of 2 or 3.
1.
Draw some diagrams, then make some examples (S/H)
2.
Explain/ Discuss its strengths and weaknesses? (H)
Extra Help... page 26
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Index
Ions....
TASK: Using the model you have made for an Atom can you now use it to show the
following.
1.
Atoms have a small central nucleus, of protons and neutrons, surrounded by
electrons. (L)
2.
The relative electrical charges are +1/-1/0 for proton, electron and neutron (S)
3.
Atoms have no overall electrical charge. (S)
4.
All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons (Atomic
Number). (L)
5.
The total mass (atomic mass) of an atom is the sum of the number of protons
and neutrons. (S/H)
Discuss your ideas in a small group then write down your findings on your sheet
and share with others in your group and “Peer Assess”...
Index
Mr Powell 2012
C1.2 Book Answers...
Student – “Self Assessed”
In text questions...
a)
protons, neutrons, electrons
b) 8 electrons
c)
silicon
d) They increase by 8 between each element.
Summary Questions
1 neutrons, electrons, negative, atomic
2 Because protons and electrons have the same amount of charge but with
opposite signs, the charge on a proton is exactly cancelled out by the charge on an
electron.
3 a 7 protons, 7 electrons and 7 neutrons. (Harder)
b 17 protons, 17 electrons and 18 neutrons. (Harder)
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Index
Homework – Revision!
http://www.sporcle.com/games/g/elements
Mr Powell 2012
Index
C1
1.3
The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms (page 28)
Lesson Aims/ Levels
7) Electrons occupy particular energy levels. Each electron in an atom is at a
particular energy level (in a particular shell). The electrons in an atom
occupy the lowest available energy levels (innermost available shells). (H)
8) Elements in the same group in the periodic table have the same number of
electrons in their highest energy level (outer electrons) and this gives them
similar chemical properties. (S)
9) The elements in Group 0 of the periodic table are called the noble gases.
They are un-reactive because their atoms have stable arrangements of
electrons. (H)
10) Chemical reactions can be represented by word equations (S)
Low Demand (E-G)
Keywords: electron shell,
Standard Demand (B-D)
outer electron, chemical
High Demand (A*-B)
properties, noble gas,
stable
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Index
Blind Date Do they Match – fill your sheet in?
Sodium, Na 11, Group 1,
Alkali Metals, 1 electron in
outer shell, reacts in water,
releases hydrogen.
Chlorine, Cl 17, Group 7, with 7
outer electrons, makes PVC,
corrosive, used in swimming
pools, bleaches roses!
Magnesium, Mg 12, Likes
Group 7, bonds with two at a
time, Reacts with O2 to form
MgO.
Oxygen, O 8, Gives life! Group
6, 6 electrons in the outer shell,
oxidises (burns) other
elements.
Aluminium, Al 13, makes
pans, Group 3, metal, reacts
with bromine strongly.
Fluorine F 9, Group 7 missing 1
electron, reacts well with
everyone, lights a cig on
contact!
Lithium Li 3, Soft metal, shiny,
very reactive, Group 1, kept
in oil.
Neon, Ne 10, Group 8, 8
electrons in outer shell, nonreactive, hangs about in ones!
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Index
Electronic Config…
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Index
Electronic Config…
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Index
C1.3 Book Answers...
Student – “Self Assessed”
In text questions...
a Arranged around the nucleus in shells.
b The energy level closest to the nucleus.
c2
d 2,8,6 (Harder)
Summary Questions
1 nucleus, shells, energy, group,
electrons
3 They both have full outer
shells or energy levels of
electrons/very stable
arrangements of electrons.
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Quick Check....
Student – “Self Assessed”
A) For the following elements can you
write down the electronic
configuration....
For example..
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Calcium is...... 2,8,8,2
Mg
Al
S
Si
K
Answers
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Mg 2,8,2
Al 2,8,3
S 2,8,6
Si – 2,8,4
K – 2,8,8,1
B) Can you draw the electronic
configuration for Si and K (Harder)
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Sodium, Na 11,
Group 1, Alkali
Metals, 1 electron
in outer shell,
reacts in water,
releases hydrogen.
Chlorine, Cl 17,
Group 7, with 7
outer electrons,
makes PVC,
corrosive, used in
swimming pools,
bleaches roses!
Sodium, Na 11,
Group 1, Alkali
Metals, 1 electron
in outer shell,
reacts in water,
releases hydrogen.
Chlorine, Cl 17,
Group 7, with 7
outer electrons,
makes PVC,
corrosive, used in
swimming pools,
bleaches roses!
Magnesium, Mg
12, Likes Group 7,
bonds with two at
a time, Reacts with
O2 to form MgO.
Oxygen, O 8, Gives
life! Group 8, 6
electrons in the
outer shell, oxidises
(burns) other
elements.
Magnesium, Mg
12, Likes Group 7,
bonds with two at
a time, Reacts with
O2 to form MgO.
Oxygen, O 8, Gives
life! Group 8, 6
electrons in the
outer shell, oxidises
(burns) other
elements.
Aluminium, Al 13,
makes pans, Group
3, metal, reacts
with bromine
strongly.
Fluorine F 9, Group
7 missing 1 electron,
reacts well with
everyone, lights a cig
on contact!
Aluminium, Al 13,
makes pans, Group
3, metal, reacts
with bromine
strongly.
Fluorine F 9, Group
7 missing 1 electron,
reacts well with
everyone, lights a cig
on contact!
Lithium Li 3, Soft
metal, shiny, very
reactive, Group 1,
kept in oil.
Neon, Ne 10, Group
8, 8 electrons in
outer shell, nonreactive, hangs
about in ones!
Lithium Li 3, Soft
metal, shiny, very
reactive, Group 1,
kept in oil.
Neon, Ne 10, Group
8, 8 electrons in
outer shell, nonreactive, hangs
about in ones!
Reactions Review...
1. Atoms of which three elements are drawn above?
2. Write out the electronic configuration for all three?
3. What do they all have in common?
Mr Powell 2012
Index
C1
1.4
Forming Bonds (page 30) – “Stealing” or “Sharing”
Lesson Aims/ Levels
• Chemical reactions can be represented by word
equations or by symbol equations. (H) (Balancing
is HT only skill)
• When elements react, their atoms join with other
atoms to form compounds. This involves giving,
taking or sharing electrons to form ions or
molecules. (H)
• Compounds formed from metals and non-metals
consist of ions. (H)
• Compounds formed from non-metals consist of
molecules. In molecules the atoms are held
together by covalent bonds. (S)
Low Demand (E-G)
Keywords: symbol, ionic
Standard Demand (B-D)
bonding, molecule,
High Demand (A*-B)
compound, covalent
bond.
OR?
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Covalent Bonding – “Sharing”
1. Look through the examples of covalent or “shared”
bonded molecules from non-metals
2. In your book draw out several examples to show how
the electrons are configured before bonding and
after bonding when electrons are shared....
More
Examples...
Chlorine Cl2
Ammonia NH3
Hydrogen H2
Hydrogen
Chloride HCl
Water H2O
Oxygen O2
http://www.animatedscience.co.uk/ks4-covalent-bonding
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Ionic Bonding “Stealing”
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Ionic Bonding “Stealing” - Metals and non metals
2nd Shell:
electrons
8
1st Shell:
electrons
2
3rd Shell:
electrons
8
1.
Each shell has a maximum number of electrons that it can hold.
2.
In noble gases the shells are completely full rather than partially full…this is
why they are so unreactive.
3.
During bonding other atoms try to attain the “full electron shell” structure of
the noble gases.
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Ionic Bonding “Stealing”
Sodium atom
Chlorine atom
Sketch the atoms above and then consider…
Both atoms would be more stable if they had full outer
shells, what would be the simplest way for each atom
to gain a full outer shell?
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Ionic Bonding “Stealing”
Sodium atom
Sodium ion
Chlorine atom
Copy these
ions
Chloride ion
-1
+1
Sodium ion
Chlorine ion
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Ionic Bonding...
Atoms have an equal number of protons and neutrons, so the
charges cancel out. However after sodium has given an electron to
chlorine, the electrons and protons in both atoms no longer
balance:
Sodium
10 electrons 1011 protons 11+
1+
Chlorine
18 electrons
1817 protons
17+
1-
The atoms are now ions and are charged Na+ and Cl-
+
Na+
[2,8]+
-
Cl[2,8,8]-
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Ionic Bonding “Stealing”
1.
Draw diagrams to show the ions that would be formed when the following
atoms are involved in ionic bonding.
2.
For each one state whether electrons have been lost or gained and show the
charge on the ion.
•
Aluminium (Al), Fluorine (F), Potassium (K), Oxygen (O)
Learning Check....
+
Na+
[2,8]+
Apply this skill to draw out these
molecules using the square brackets
1.
KF
2.
AlF3 (Harder)
3.
Al2O3 (Harder)
Mr Powell 2012
Index
C1.4 Book Answers...
Student – “Self Assessed”
In text questions...
a K+
b covalent bonds
Summary Questions
1 positive,
lose,
gain,
negative,
attract,
ionic,
covalent,
share
2 a Sodium fluoride
b Na+ and Fc NaF
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Progress Check...
Write down the two key things we have learned about today, giving an
example of each by...
1. Diagram (Low Demand)
2. Written Explanation (Standard Demand)
3. Both linked in detail (High Demand)
OR?
Mr Powell 2012
Index
C1
1.5
Chemical Equations (page 32)
Lesson Aims/ Levels
No atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the
products equals the mass of the reactants. (H)
Low Demand (E-G)
Standard Demand (B-D)
High Demand (A*-B)
Keywords: reactants, products
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Balancing Equations....
Can you check the products and reactants and balance these
equations...
H2 + Br2 → HBr
Na + Cl2 → NaCl
1. H2 + Br2 → 2HBr
2. 2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl
3. CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
CH4 + O2 → CO2 + H2O
P + Cl2 → PCI3
4. 2P + 3Cl2 → 2PCl3
5. CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO (already balanced)
6. 3Fe + 4H2O → 4H2 + Fe3O4
CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO
Fe + H2O → H2 + Fe3O4 (High Demand)
Mr Powell 2012
Index
C1.5 Book Answers...
Student – “Self Assessed”
In text questions...
a A lighted splint burns with a squeaky ‘pop’.
b Reactant: calcium carbonate. Products: calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
c H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl
Summary Questions
1 As no new atoms can be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction, the number
and type of atoms in the reactants must equal the number and type of atoms in
the products.
2 a 4.4 g
b magnesium carbonate → magnesium oxide + carbon dioxide
3 a 2Ca + O2 → 2CaO
b 4Al + 3O2 → 2Al2 O3
c 2Na + 2H2 O → 2NaOH + H2
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Progress Check...
A. Using an example of a reaction you have
looked at today and page 33 in the book.
B. “making an equation balance”
C. Write a method of steps that you would
employ to balance any other reaction
you might be given
1. H2 + Br2 → 2HBr
D. Then swap with another person and test
it out to see if it worked on all of these
six.
2. 2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl
E. Check each reaction in turn, each one
correct to the method gets 1 mark.
4. 2P + 3Cl2 → 2PCl3
?
6
3. CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
5. CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO (already
balanced)
6. 3Fe + 4H2O → 4H2 + Fe3O4
Mr Powell 2012
Index
Balancing Equations Extra Help....
Balancing Equations Extra Help....
Can you check the products and reactants
and balance these equations...
Can you check the products and reactants
and balance these equations...
H2 + Br2 → HBr
H2 + Br2 → HBr
Na + Cl2 → NaCl
Na + Cl2 → NaCl
CH4 + O2 →
CH4 + O2 →

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