ATP Adenosine triphosphate- the principal chemical compound that cells use to store and release energy. Consists of adenine, Ribose, and three phosphate groups. ADP- adenosine diphosphate, it looks like ATP but has two phosphates instead of three. When a cell has energy available it stores the energy by adding a phosphate to ADP. Go to Section: ATP Section 8-1 Adenine Go to Section: Ribose 3 Phosphate groups Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery Section 8-1 ADP ATP Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Partially charged battery Go to Section: Energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Fully charged battery Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery Section 8-1 ADP ATP Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Partially charged battery Go to Section: Energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Fully charged battery Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration- the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (as ATP) Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (as ATP) Go to Section: Chemical Pathways Section 9-1 Glucose Glycolysis Krebs cycle Fermentation (without oxygen) Go to Section: Electron transport Alcohol or lactic acid Figure 9–2 Cellular Respiration: An Overview Section 9-1 Mitochondrion Electrons carried in NADH Pyruvic acid Glucose Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion Cytoplasm Go to Section: Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Vacuole Ribosome (free) Chloroplast Ribosome (attached) Cell Membrane Nuclear envelope Cell wall Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Rough endoplasmic reticulum Plant Cell Go to Section: Glycolysis Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound. NADH holds electrons to be transferred to other molecules. By doing this it helps to pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell. Go to Section: Figure 9–3 Glycolysis Section 9-1 Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain Go to Section: Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation-releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP without oxygen present. Alcoholic Fermentation- Yeasts and microorganisms form ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as waste. Lactic Acid Fermentation- pyruvic acid accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid.. It Regenerates NAD so that glycolysis can continue Go to Section: Figure 9–4 Lactic Acid Fermentation Section 9-1 Glucose Go to Section: Pyruvic acid Lactic acid Flowchart Section 9-2 Cellular Respiration Glucose (C6H1206) + Oxygen (02) Go to Section: Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) Aerobic Respiration Uses Oxygen and takes place in the mitochondria Krebs Cycle- 2nd stage of cellular respiration that break pyruvic acid down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reactions. The 1st compound formed is citric acid so Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle. Electron Transport Chain- also takes place in the mitochondria . It uses the high energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP into ATP. Go to Section: Figure 9–6 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion Go to Section: Figure 9–7 Electron Transport Chain Section 9-2 Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement Channel Intermembrane Space ATP synthase Inner Membrane Matrix ATP Production Go to Section: Mitochondrion The Totals Krebs cycle and Electron Transport chain enable the cell to produce 34 more ATP molecules per glucose molecule. 18 times as much ATP can be generated from glucose in the presence of oxygen. So total amount is 36 ATP’s Go to Section: Heterotroph or Autotroph Autotrophs- organisms such as plants that make their own food. Heterotroph- organisms like animals obtain energy food that they consume. Go to Section: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy sugars and oxygen. 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6+ 6O2 Go to Section: Light and Pigments Pigments- light absorbing molecules that plants use to gather the sun’s energy. Chlorophyll- the plants principal pigment. Two Types. Chlorophyll –a and Chlorophyll-b. Carotene- red and orange pigments that some plants contain. Go to Section: Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption Section 8-2 Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a V Go to Section: B G YO R Chloroplast Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast Thylakoids-saclike photosynthetic membrane. Thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana(plural) or granum(singular). Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters known as photosystems. Photosystems- light collecting units of the chloroplast 2 types Go to Section: Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products Section 8-2 Light Energy Chloroplast CO2 + H2O Go to Section: Sugars + O2 Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview Section 8-3 Light CO2 Chloroplast Chloroplast NADP+ ADP + P LightDependent Reactions Calvin Cycle ATP NADPH O2 Go to Section: Sugars Light dependent reactions Light dependent reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes Light dependent reactions require energy from light to produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH. ATP Synthase- enzyme or protein that binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP. Go to Section: Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions Section 8-3 Photosystem II Hydrogen Ion Movement Chloroplast ATP synthase Inner Thylakoid Space Thylakoid Membrane Stroma Electron Transport Chain Go to Section: Photosystem I ATP Formation Light independent reactions or The Calvin Cycle Takes place in the stroma. The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions and 6 molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a single 6 carbon sugar molecule. Plants use the glucose to make a polysaccharide called cellulose. Go to Section: Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle Section 8-3 CO2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input Chloroplast 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated 6-Carbon Sugar Produced Sugars and other compounds Go to Section: Concept Map Section 8-3 Photosynthesis includes Lightdependent reactions Calvin cycle use take place in Energy from sunlight Thylakoid membranes to produce ATP NADPH Go to Section: O2 takes place in Stroma uses ATP NADPH of to produce Chloroplasts High-energy sugars Videos Click a hyperlink to choose a video. ATP Formation Photosynthesis Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2 Calvin Cycle Video 1 ATP Formation Click the image to play the video segment. Video 2 Photosynthesis Click the image to play the video segment. Video 3 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 4 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 5 Calvin Cycle Click the image to play the video segment. Go Online ATP activity Interactive test For links on Calvin cycle, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3082. For links on photosynthesis, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3083. This slide is intentionally blank.