Bioenergetics - Catawba County Schools

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ATP
Adenosine triphosphate- the principal chemical compound that
cells use to store and release energy.
Consists of adenine, Ribose, and three phosphate groups.
ADP- adenosine diphosphate, it looks like ATP but has two
phosphates instead of three.
When a cell has energy available it stores the energy by adding a
phosphate to ADP.
Go to
Section:
ATP
Section 8-1
Adenine
Go to
Section:
Ribose
3 Phosphate groups
Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and
ATP to a Battery
Section 8-1
ADP
ATP
Energy
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate
Partially
charged
battery
Go to
Section:
Energy
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Fully
charged
battery
Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and
ATP to a Battery
Section 8-1
ADP
ATP
Energy
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate
Partially
charged
battery
Go to
Section:
Energy
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Fully
charged
battery
Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration- the process that releases energy by
breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence
of oxygen.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (as ATP)
Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (as ATP)
Go to
Section:
Chemical Pathways
Section 9-1
Glucose
Glycolysis
Krebs
cycle
Fermentation
(without oxygen)
Go to
Section:
Electron
transport
Alcohol or
lactic acid
Figure 9–2 Cellular Respiration: An Overview
Section 9-1
Mitochondrion
Electrons carried in NADH
Pyruvic
acid
Glucose
Glycolysis
Krebs
Cycle
Electrons
carried in
NADH and
FADH2
Electron
Transport
Chain
Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm
Go to
Section:
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
Vacuole
Ribosome
(free)
Chloroplast
Ribosome
(attached)
Cell
Membrane
Nuclear
envelope
Cell wall
Nucleolus
Golgi apparatus
Nucleus
Mitochondrion
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Plant Cell
Go to
Section:
Glycolysis
Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is
broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon
compound.
NADH holds electrons to be transferred to other molecules. By
doing this it helps to pass energy from glucose to other pathways in
the cell.
Go to
Section:
Figure 9–3 Glycolysis
Section 9-1
Glucose
2 Pyruvic acid
To the electron
transport chain
Go to
Section:
Anaerobic Respiration
Fermentation-releases energy from food molecules by producing
ATP without oxygen present.
Alcoholic Fermentation- Yeasts and microorganisms form ethyl
alcohol and carbon dioxide as waste.
Lactic Acid Fermentation- pyruvic acid accumulates as a result of
glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid.. It Regenerates NAD so
that glycolysis can continue
Go to
Section:
Figure 9–4 Lactic Acid Fermentation
Section 9-1
Glucose
Go to
Section:
Pyruvic acid
Lactic acid
Flowchart
Section 9-2
Cellular Respiration
Glucose
(C6H1206)
+
Oxygen
(02)
Go to
Section:
Glycolysis
Krebs
Cycle
Electron
Transport
Chain
Carbon
Dioxide
(CO2)
+
Water
(H2O)
Aerobic Respiration
Uses Oxygen and takes place in the mitochondria
Krebs Cycle- 2nd stage of cellular respiration that break pyruvic
acid down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting
reactions.
The 1st compound formed is citric acid so Krebs cycle is also
known as the citric acid cycle.
Electron Transport Chain- also takes place in the mitochondria .
It uses the high energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to convert
ADP into ATP.
Go to
Section:
Figure 9–6 The Krebs Cycle
Section 9-2
Citric Acid
Production
Mitochondrion
Go to
Section:
Figure 9–7 Electron Transport Chain
Section 9-2
Electron Transport
Hydrogen Ion Movement
Channel
Intermembrane
Space
ATP synthase
Inner
Membrane
Matrix
ATP Production
Go to
Section:
Mitochondrion
The Totals
Krebs cycle and Electron Transport chain enable the cell to
produce 34 more ATP molecules per glucose molecule.
18 times as much ATP can be generated from glucose in the
presence of oxygen.
So total amount is 36 ATP’s
Go to
Section:
Heterotroph or Autotroph
Autotrophs- organisms such as plants that make their own food.
Heterotroph- organisms like animals obtain energy food that they
consume.
Go to
Section:
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and
carbon dioxide into high energy sugars and oxygen.
6H2O + 6CO2  C6H12O6+ 6O2
Go to
Section:
Light and Pigments
Pigments- light absorbing molecules that plants use to gather the
sun’s energy.
Chlorophyll- the plants principal pigment.
Two Types.
Chlorophyll –a and Chlorophyll-b.
Carotene- red and orange pigments that some plants contain.
Go to
Section:
Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption
Section 8-2
Absorption of Light by
Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b
Chlorophyll b
Chlorophyll a
V
Go to
Section:
B
G
YO
R
Chloroplast
Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast
Thylakoids-saclike photosynthetic membrane. Thylakoids are
arranged in stacks known as grana(plural) or granum(singular).
Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other
pigments into clusters known as photosystems.
Photosystems- light collecting units of the chloroplast 2 types
Go to
Section:
Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products
Section 8-2
Light Energy
Chloroplast
CO2 + H2O
Go to
Section:
Sugars + O2
Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview
Section 8-3
Light
CO2
Chloroplast
Chloroplast
NADP+
ADP + P
LightDependent
Reactions
Calvin
Cycle
ATP
NADPH
O2
Go to
Section:
Sugars
Light dependent reactions
Light dependent reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes
Light dependent reactions require energy from light to produce
oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP into the energy carriers ATP
and NADPH.
ATP Synthase- enzyme or protein that binds ADP and a phosphate group
together to produce ATP.
Go to
Section:
Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions
Section 8-3
Photosystem II
Hydrogen
Ion Movement
Chloroplast
ATP synthase
Inner
Thylakoid
Space
Thylakoid
Membrane
Stroma
Electron
Transport Chain
Go to
Section:
Photosystem I
ATP Formation
Light independent reactions or The Calvin Cycle
Takes place in the stroma.
The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent
reactions and 6 molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a single 6
carbon sugar molecule.
Plants use the glucose to make a polysaccharide called cellulose.
Go to
Section:
Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle
Section 8-3
CO2 Enters the Cycle
Energy Input
Chloroplast
5-Carbon
Molecules
Regenerated
6-Carbon Sugar
Produced
Sugars and other compounds
Go to
Section:
Concept Map
Section 8-3
Photosynthesis
includes
Lightdependent
reactions
Calvin cycle
use
take place in
Energy from
sunlight
Thylakoid
membranes
to produce
ATP
NADPH
Go to
Section:
O2
takes place in
Stroma
uses
ATP
NADPH
of
to produce
Chloroplasts
High-energy
sugars
Videos
Click a hyperlink to choose a video.
ATP Formation
Photosynthesis
Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1
Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2
Calvin Cycle
Video 1
ATP Formation
Click the image to play the video segment.
Video 2
Photosynthesis
Click the image to play the video segment.
Video 3
Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1
Click the image to play the video segment.
Video 4
Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2
Click the image to play the video segment.
Video 5
Calvin Cycle
Click the image to play the video segment.
Go Online
ATP activity
Interactive test
For links on Calvin cycle, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the
Web Code as follows: cbn-3082.
For links on photosynthesis, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the
Web Code as follows: cbn-3083.
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