BIOLOGY: PLEASE GET OUT YOUR NOTESHEET FROM YESTERDAY!! Today: 11/13/13 Finish Analyzing Graphic-Active Transport Discuss Answers Evaluate your knowledge on Facilitated Diffusion, Active Transport and Endo/Exocytosis Homework Quiz Tomorrow over your Assessment Answers! Work with your group to finish answering the questions about this graphic! Let’s see what you learned from yesterday!! Homework Quiz tomorrow over this information… You will be allowed to use your homework only!! You must have this sheet with you! You can only answer questions that you have completed! BIOLOGY: PLEASE GET OUT YOUR HOMEWORK! Today Nov 14: Homework Quiz Describe the structure of ATP Describe the ATP cycle Homework Quiz: Write the answers down that you have on your homework for the specific questions. When you finish please turn it into the tray. If you do not have some answers on homework you CANNOT answer on quiz!! I. Energy and living organisms A. Photosynthesis- light energy (sunlight) is converted to chemical energy (glucose) 1. Autotrophs- use sunlight to make own energy-food 2. Heterotrophs- organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight (must eat) B. Living things store energy in compounds such as ATP and ADP Draw an 1. ATP consists of: a. adenine b. ribose (a 5-carbon sugar) c. 3 phosphate groups ATP molecule on your notesheet! 2. Energy stored in bonds between phosphate groups, break bonds release energy * The phosphate “tails” are unstable due to their negative charges * Negative phosphate groups want to repel each other a. ATP breaks off a P, releases energy, becomes ADP 3. ATP – P -----→ ADP (adenosine diphosphate) Released ENERGY After the ATP loses its phosphate group, its becomes ADP, then it gets a new phosphate group and is ATP again! a. ADP then gets another P added to it (recharged) and is ready to be used again Adenosine Diphosphate Partially charged battery Energy Adenosine Triphosphate Fully charged battery C. How ATP is used 1. During Active transport 2. move organelles inside the cell along microtubules (like a train track) 3. Storing and transferring small amounts of energy a. One molecule of glucose can store 90 X the amount of energy of one ATP **energy currency example** Assignment: (At bottom of notes sheet) DUE TOMORROW!! Read 143-144: Describe the ATP cycle Read 136-137: Explain the role of food (Glucose) in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Define the vocab words on the back of the notes sheet. Please draw a picture for each! --Read in text!!! (not glossary!) Biology: Please get out your homework from last night. Today Nov 15 Describe the ATP Cycle Design a model of ATP cycle Analyze Text about ATP-ADP Cycle TEST NEXT FRIDAY!!! With your MITOSIS partner: Describe the ATP/ADP cycle to each other. Draw a diagram of the ATP/ADP cycle. Design a model of ATP Model the energy transition from ATP to ADP and from ADP to ATP Using one, some, or all: Rubber Bands, Clothespins, and “springs” Then answer the questions in the ATP ADP cycle packet!! Biology: Get out your ATP/ADP Cycle Packets from Friday (Weekend Homework) Today: 11/18/2013 Review ATP/ADP Cycle Explain what goes into and comes out of cellular respiration! Trace the 3 steps of Cellular Respiration QUEST FRIDAY!!!! Organelles, Cell Membrane, Molecule Movement, ATP/ADP Cellular Respiration will be with Photosynthesis in a few weeks!! Cellular respiration Quiz next week!! Section 9-2 Flowchart Cellular Respiration Glucose (C6H1206) + Oxygen (02) Go to Section: Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) I. Cellular Respiration A. Cellular Respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose 1. Use oxygen to get energy from glucose and form ATP molecules 2. C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O+ ATP Glucose + oxygen →carbon dioxide + water + energy 3. EVERY living thing does cellular respiration 4. Aerobic- process that requires oxygen 5. Anaerobic- process that does not require oxygen Please get out your homework! Today: 11/19/2013 Describe Glycolysis Explain conservation of matter Describe Kreb’s Cycle and ETC HW: Work on Study Guide! Tomorrow we will review steps to Cell Resp.-Quiz Tues Thurs Review for QUEST!!! --QUEST FRIDAY! Bellringer: Describe what happens in glycolysis What goes in and what comes out!? Cell Resp. made up of: a. glycolysis With oxygen! b. Krebs cycle c. electron transport chain 38 ATP!! Without oxygen! Fermentation! II.Breaking down glucose A. Glycolysis- in cytoplasm 1. One molecule of glucose is used and 2 ATP are created 2. One glucose goes in a 2 pyruvic acids are made 3. Small yield but happens so fast, thousands of ATP per msCan happen w/o oxygen 4. NAD+ →NADH , carries high energy electrons IN 1 glucose 2 ATP (investment) NAD+ OUT 2 pyruvic acid 4 ATP (net gain 2 ATP) NADH B. Kreb’s Cycle-in mitochondria 1. Aerobic-need oxygen to do 2. Makes CO2 , and ATP 3. electron carriers- FADH and NADH, made to use during ETC IN OUT FAD FADH NAD NADH CO2 2 Pyruvic acid ATP (now the energy source) 4. pyruvic acid is broken apart and energy is used to make ATP, make and release CO2 and transfer high e electrons to FAD and NAD C. Electron Transport Chain -uses high energy electrons from Krebs cycle to make ATP out of ADP 1. Aerobic-takes in O2 and releases water 2. Lots of ATP made by ATP synthaseattaches a phosphate group to ADP using hydrogen ions H+ 3. in mitochondria IN FADH NADH O2 ADP OUT FAD NAD H2O lots of ATP D. Totals: With oxygen present Cellular Respiration forms about 38 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose 1. 2- Glycolysis 2- Krebs 34-ETC Name this process: Glycolysis,Krebs cycle, ETC 1. Requires 2 ATP investment 2. Charges up NADH and FADH Answer these 3. Makes H2O on the back of your notes 4. Releases CO2 sheet! 5. Makes a lot of ATP 6. What process is this: Other review: 7. What are the 3 parts to cellular respiration in order? 8. What is the overall goal of cellular respiration? Work on Study Guide for QUEST!!! QUEST FRIDAY!!! Biology: Today 11/20/13 Summarize the three steps to Cellular Respiration! Analyze graphics! QUEST FRIDAY! QUIZ-Cellular Respiration Tuesday! Biology: STUDY!!! Today 11/22/2013 Friday Mythbusters Cell Quest!! Cellular Respiration Quiz Tuesday!! Biology Today: 11/25/2013 Describe the three stages of Cell Respiration! HW: Study for quiz!! Finish Activity! QUIZ TOMORROW OVER CELL RESPIRATION! Create a cartoon explaining/describing the three steps of Cellular Respiration! This should be creative! You may sit with a partner and bounce ideas off each other, but EVERYONE will make their OWN!! --pg 148-152 breaks it down! If you finish early, STUDY FOR QUIZ!!! Quiz over the three stages of Cellular Respiration TOMORROW!! You have your review from last week on it, and now your cartoon. STUDY!!! Biology: STUDY STUDY STUDY!!!! Today 11/26/2013 Review for Quiz Cellular Respiration Quiz Explain Fermentation! HW: Fermentation reading assignment! Section 9-2 Flowchart Cellular Respiration Glucose (C6H1206) + Oxygen (02) Glycolysis Electron Transport Chain • What process is missing from this flow chart? • What is the main point of cellular Go to Section: respiration? Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) 3. What process is this picture showing? 4. Glucose is being split into 2 what? 5. 2 ATP are put into this reaction and how many are produced? Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain NADH FADH2 6. Both of these molecules function as what? 7. What organelle is this a picture of? 8. What happens in this organelle? Glycolysis -2 pyruvic acids -2 ATP -NADH Krebs -few ATP -FADH, NADH -CO2 ETC - lots of ATP - Take in O2, release water TURN IN YOUR PICTURES!! Turn in your quiz to basket when you are done. Then grab the reading assignment from the side lab table and work on it! III. Breaking down glucose in the absence of Oxygen A. Fermentation – releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen 1. Anaerobic- not using oxygen 2. Cells convert NADH back into NAD+ 3. Glycolysis repeats itself (a lot) B. 2 types of fermentation: 1. Lactic Acid fermentationa. Pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis is converted to lactic acid b. Produced by muscles during exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen 1.) Build up of lactic acid causes painful burning in muscles 2. Alcoholic- Yeasts use; produce small amount of ATP pyruvic acid + NADH→ alcohol +CO2+ NAD+ a. Yeast in dough runs out of oxygen, does fermentation, CO2 causes bubbles in bread • History: Louis Pasteur studied fermentation to help the French wine industry. He discovered “the Pasteur Effect” – When yeast and grape juice are sealed into a fermentation vessel, the yeast grows until all the oxygen is used up. At this point the yeast switches to fermentation and alcohol is produced. Sugar is used up very quickly by the yeast during fermentation since little energy can be released from each glucose molecule without O2 (2ATP). IV. Energy and Exercise A.To obtain energy the body uses energy already in muscles, ATP made by lactic acid fermentation, and ATP made by cellular respiration B. Quick Energy- lots of energy fast. Your body will first use the energy stored in muscles, but then have to switch to lactic acid fermentation (90 seconds or less) 1. Oxygen Debt- the only way to get rid of lactic acid is to get extra oxygen into your body-deep breaths C. Long term energy- Over 90 seconds requires cellular respiration to generate a continuous supply of ATP. 1. For 15-20 minutes your body breaks down glycogen (carbohydrates), after this your body starts to breakdown fats Biology: Grab the lab sheet from the front of the room… Read through it and answer the PRE-LAB Questions! Today 11/27/2013: Investigate Muscle Fatigue Analyze Data Fermentation Quiz Next Week Wednesday!! NO Homework!! Have a safe and fun Thanksgiving Muscle Fatigue: Muscle cells often need a very large supply of ATP for rapid bursts of activity. For short, quick bursts of energy, the body uses ATP already in muscles as well as ATP made by lactic acid fermentation When lactic acid fermentation happens the lactic acid builds up in muscle cells and causes painful burning. Investigating muscle fatigue: • • • • • Hold clothespin in hand you write with (dominant hand). Squeeze as hard as you can and as many times as you can in 30 sec. (Hold clothespin between thumb and index finger, all other fingers straight out! ) Record this number in the chart below. (Squeeze as quickly and as completely as possible) Repeat this process 9 more times for a total of 10. Do not rest your hand between trials. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for non-dominant hand. Trial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Squeezes Dom hand Squeezes non Dom hand Biology: Get out your labs! Today: 12/2/2013 Alcoholic Fermentation Demo! Analyze Data from Lactic Acid Lab Review Fermentation Explain/Describe the process of fermentation I am almost done grading quests and quizzes, you will get them back this week! Fermentation Mini-Quiz Wednesday! Alcoholic Fermentation Demo YEAST, Warm Water, Sugar, Balloon! On a sheet of paper… (you will answer 2 and 3 at the end of class!) 1. Predict what will happen to the balloon. 2. Describe what happens to the balloon. 3. Explain why this happened. Finish Lab --Squeezes --Graphing Data -- Analyze Data/Answer Questions When you finish, please grab the cellular respiration/fermentation review sheet! Fermentation Mini-Quiz Wednesday!! Biology: Turn in LAB!! Today 12/3/13 Describe Muscle Fatigue Lab Explain Alcoholic Fermentation Demo Compare and Contrast two types of fermentation HW: Study for Fermentation Quiz--Weds!! Describe how your hands and fingers felt during the end of your trials. Were your results different between hands? What was the burning sensation a result of? Explain how the amount of ATP produced during anaerobic respiration compares to that of cellular respiration and how that might make your cells less efficient. The demonstration I did with a flask, balloon, yeast, and sugar allowed for what to blow up the balloon? What was that an example of? Is fermentation an aerobic or anaerobic process? Explain what happened during this demo! (More than balloon blew up… tell me why!) Review Homework answers about Fermentation. Please get out the reading assignment from last week and last night! Homework: STUDY FOR QUIZ! Use all things we discussed with Fermentation!! Study now, or read quietly… BRING TEXTBOOKS TOMORROW!!! Get out your study guides from yesterday!! Get out your study guide and read over it! Quest in T minus 5 minutes! When you are finished. Read a book or science magazine! PICTURE QUIZ/REVIEW Chapter 9 Section 9-2 Flowchart Cellular Respiration Glucose (C6H1206) + Oxygen (02) Glycolysis Electron Transport Chain • What process is missing from this flow chart? • What is the main point of cellular Go to Section: respiration? Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) 3. What process is this picture showing? 4. Glucose is being split into 2 what? 5. 2 ATP are put into this reaction and how many are produced? Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain NADH FADH2 6. Both of these molecules function as what? 7. What organelle is this a picture of? 8. What happens in this organelle? 9. Is fermentation and aerobic or anaerobic process? Pyruvic acid 2 3 Glycolysis krebs cycle ETC glucose ATP mitochondria Oxygen cytoplasm anaerobic Aerobic alcoholic lactic acid ATP synthase Electron carriers NADH CO2 O2 H 20 36 • What is the point of cellular respiration? • Why kind of organisms do cellular respiration? • What are the three steps to cellular respiration when oxygen is present? • What happens if there is no oxygen present? • What are the two types of fermentation? • What type of fermentation can people do? • What are NADH and FADH? • How many ATP are made per glucose molecule? • Where is most of the ATP made? • What is the cellular respiration equation? How does it compare to the photosynthesis equation? • Know what goes into and out of each process in cellular respiration.