curiosity - Kansas State University

Report
Enhancing the Career Adaptability and Decision
Making to Prepare Students for the Future
Judith K. Hughey
Kenneth F. Hughey
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS
NACADA Conference
Nashville, TN
October 5, 2012
How does it look for students preparing for the
future?
What is needed to prepare for the future—for
students and for advisors?
“Among individuals choosing jobs and constructing careers, the
work world of the 21st century provokes feelings of anxiety and
insecurity” (Savickas, 2012, p. 13).
“Steeped in and influenced by politics and economics, both
national and international, career development is the individual’s
catalyst for competing and living successfully in today’s and
tomorrow’s world—a world responding to an emerging
workplace shaped by globalization and technology enhancements
and a multitude of choices.” (Feller & Whichard, 2005, p. 14).
“Innovation and creativity cumulatively produce change faster than higher
education and students can often adapt. Complexity, information overload, and
infinite choices demand focus, reflection, and student resilience. Greater
personal responsibility is required of students aiming to be a positive force in
enriching people, communities, and the environment.” (Feller & O’Bruba,
2009, p. 20)
“Academic advisors must be in tune with the remarkable changes unfolding in
today’s work world. The workplace today is undergoing significant changes
just as earth-shattering as those of the Industrial Revolution. . . . Advising is a
key factor in helping students use their college years preparing to become
educated persons and productive workers. It is important to anticipate how
society, higher education, and our future students might change” (Gordon,
2006, p. 113).
Topics for the Session
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Career adaptability
Planned happenstance and chance
Career flow and hope
Career decision-making and problem solving
Case study and activities
Advising questions to enhance preparation
Career Adaptability
Career adaptability “denotes an individual’s
readiness and resources for coping with
current and imminent vocational
developmental tasks, occupational transitions,
and personal traumas” (Savickas, 2005, p. 51).
Four Dimensions of Career Adaptability
In career construction theory, adaptive individuals
are conceptualized as:
• Becoming concerned about their future as a
worker.
• Increasing personal control over their vocational
future.
• Displaying curiosity by exploring possible selves
and future scenarios.
• Strengthening the confidence to pursue their
aspirations. (Savickas, 2005, p. 52)
Career Concern—“Career concern means essentially a future
orientation, a sense that it is important to prepare for tomorrow.
Attitudes of planfulness and optimism foster a sense of concern
because they dispose individuals to become aware of the
vocational tasks and occupational transitions to be faced and
choices to be made in the imminent and distant future.” (p. 52)
Question-Do I have a future?
Problem-Indifference
Attitudes & Beliefs-Planful
Competence-Planning
Coping Behaviors-Aware, involved, preparatory
Relationship-Dependent
Career Intervention-Orientation exercises (Savickas, 2005, p. 53)
Career Control—“Career control means that individuals feel and
believe that they are responsible for constructing their careers.
While they may consult significant others, they own their career. .
. . Attitudes of assertiveness and decisiveness dispose selfgoverning individuals to engage the vocational development tasks
and negotiate occupational transitions, rather than procrastinate
and avoid them.” (p. 54)
Question-Who owns my future?
Problem-Indecision
Attitudes & Beliefs-Decisive
Competence-Decision making
Coping Behaviors-Assertive, disciplined, willful
Relationship-Independent
Career Intervention-Decisional training (Savickas, 2005, p. 53)
Career Curiosity—“Career curiosity refers to inquisitiveness
about and exploration of the fit between self and the work world.
When acted on, curiosity produces a fund of knowledge with
which to make choices that fit self to situation. . . . Attitudes of
inquisitiveness dispose individuals to scan the environment to
learn more about self and situations.” (p. 55)
Question-What do I want to do with my future?
Problem-Unrealism
Attitudes & Beliefs-Inquisitive
Competence-Exploring
Coping Behaviors-Experimenting, risk-taking, inquiring
Relationship-Interdependent
Career Intervention-Information-seeking activities (Savickas,
2005, p. 53)
Career Confidence—“In career construction theory, confidence
denotes feelings of self-efficacy concerning the individual’s
ability to successfully execute a course of action needed to make
and implement suitable educational and vocational choices. . . .
Confidence arises from solving problems encountered in daily
activities such as household chores, schoolwork, and hobbies.”
(p. 56)
Question-Can I do it?
Problem-Inhibition
Attitudes & Beliefs-Efficacious
Competence-Problem solving
Coping Behaviors-Persistent, striving, industrious
Relationship-Equal
Career Intervention-Self-esteem building (Savickas, 2005, p. 53)
Skills to Recognize, Create, and Use Chance in One’s Career
• Curiosity: exploring new learning opportunities
• Persistence: exerting effort despite setbacks
• Flexibility: changing attitudes and circumstances
• Optimism: viewing new opportunities as possible and
attainable
• Risk taking: taking action in the face of uncertain outcomes
(Mitchell, Levin, & Krumboltz, 1999, p. 115)
Case of Elaine
What are some of the key issues for Elaine and advising
her?
What recommendations would you make?
Career Flow Competencies
• Hope
• Self-reflection
• Self-clarity
• Visioning
• Goal setting/planning
• Implementing/adapting
(Niles, Amundson, & Neault, 2011)
Assessing Hope
Rate each item using the following scale:
Definitely False-1; Somewhat False-2; Somewhat True-3; Definitely True-4
• Even when I feel stuck, I believe I can solve the problem.
• I believe my future is bright.
• I believe I can make a difference.
What is your score (divide it by 3)?
(Niles et al., 2011, pp. 28-29)
Making Career Decisions
Cognitive Information Processing
• Pyramid of Information Processing
• Knowledge domains: Self-knowledge (knowing about
myself) and Occupational knowledge (knowing about
my options)
• Decision-making skills domain: CASVE (knowing
how to make decisions)
• Executive processing domain (Thinking about my
decision making)
(Sampson, Reardon, Lenz, & Peterson, 2004)
Making Career Decisions
The CASVE Cycle
• Communication (Knowing I need to make a choice)
• Analysis (Understanding myself and my options)
• Synthesis (Expanding and narrowing my list of
options)
• Valuing (Choosing an occupation, program of study,
or job)
• Execution (Implementing my choice)
(Sampson et al., 2004)
Goal Setting & Planning Competency
Rate each item using the following scale:
Definitely False-1; Somewhat False-2; Somewhat True-3; Definitely True-4
• I have long-term goals.
• I have several things I want to accomplish soon to achieve
my long-term goals.
• I have specific plans to achieve my goals.
What is your score (divide it by 3)?
(Niles et al., 2011, pp. 28-29)
Developing a Personal Vision Statement
A personal vision statement is “a vivid description of
your desired future. It is your personal creation of an
image that reflects the future you hope to create. It is
your dream for yourself. It should be a statement you
find compelling and exciting. It should incorporate the
most important aspects of who you are, what you enjoy,
the skills you enjoy using, and what you value.” (Niles
et al., 2011, p. 127)
Critical Ingredients for Career Interventions
• Written exercises that encourage clients to write their work
and life goals, plans for implementing goals, and occupational
analysis
• Individual interpretation and feedback—assessment results,
career plans, career decision making
• Information on the world of work information, including
occupational skills and requirements
• Modeling of career exploration, decision making, and career
implementation
• Building support networks for career development and choices
• (Brown & Crane, 2000)
Questions to Enhance Career Advising for a Changing Workplace
How can I help you . . .
1.
2.
3.
4.
discover what motivates you . . . what gets the best out of you?
become curious and innovative (entrepreneurial thoughts/ideas)?
get the people skills needed to work in teams/cooperate/ inspire?
get the oral skills you need to persuade/change another’s attitude or
opinion?
5. embrace technology (productivity)?
6. gain higher math and science competencies without “saying uncle”?
7. practice business writing (regardless of field, the more responsibility
gained the more persuading others in writing using documentation is
valued)?
8. see education is a means to develop competencies not an end in itself
(lifelong learning)?
9. read, travel, and experiment with new environments to see beyond
present boundaries?
10. see that polished effort looks a lot like ability?
References
Brown, S.D., & Ryan Krane, N.E. (2000). Four (or five) sessions and a cloud of dust: Old assumptions and new observations about career
counseling. In S.D. Brown & R.W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (pp. 740-766). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Clifton, D.O., Anderson, E., & Schreiner, L.A. (2006). StrengthsQuest: Discover and develop your strengths in academics, career, and beyond.
New York, NY: Gallup Press.
Feller, R. (2011, November). Career smarts for the job crisis: Finding success in hard times. Webinar conducted for the National Career
Development Association.
Feller, R., & O’Bruba, B. (2009). The evolving workplace: Integrating academic and career advising. In K.F. Hughey, D. Burton Nelson, J.K.
Damminger, & B. McCalla Wriggings (Eds.), The handbook of career advising (pp. 19-47). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Feller, R., & Whichard, J. (2005). Knowledge nomads and the nervously employed: Workplace change & courageous career choices. Austin,
TX: Pro-ed.
Gordon, V.N. (2006). Career advising: An academic advisor’s guide. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Hughey, K.F., Burton Nelson, D., Damminger, J.K., & McCalla Wriggins, B. (Eds.) (2009). The handbook of career advising. San Francisco,
CA: Jossey-Bass.
Krumboltz, J.D. (2010, November). Action-based tips for successful career counseling. Webinar conducted for the National Career
Development Association.
Krumboltz, J.D. (2009). The happenstance learning theory. Journal of Career Assessment, 17, 135-154.
Mitchell, K.E., Levin, A.S., Krumboltz, J.D. (1999). Planned happenstance: Constructing unexpected career opportunities. Journal of
Counseling & Development, 77, 115-124.
Niles, S.G., Amundson, N.E., & Neault, R.A. (2011). Career flow: A hope-centered approach to career development. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Niles, S.G., & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2013). Career development interventions in the 21 century (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
References
Sampson, J.P., Jr., Reardon, R.C., Peterson, G.W., & Lenz, J.G. (2004). Career counseling & services: A cognitive information
processing approach. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Savickas, M.L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. In S.D. Brown & R.W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and
counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 42-70). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Savickas, M.L. (2012). Life design: A paradigm for career intervention in the 21st century. Journal of Counseling & Development,
90, 13-19.
Savickas, M.L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J., Duarte, M.E., Guichard, J., . . . van Vianen, A.E.M. (2009). Life designing: A
paradigm for career construction in the 21st century. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 239-250.
Schreiner, L.A., & Anderson, E. (2005). Strengths-based advising: A new lens for higher education. NACADA Journal, 25(2), 2029.

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