Enhancing the Career Adaptability and Decision Making to Prepare Students for the Future Judith K. Hughey Kenneth F. Hughey Kansas State University Manhattan, KS NACADA Conference Nashville, TN October 5, 2012 How does it look for students preparing for the future? What is needed to prepare for the future—for students and for advisors? “Among individuals choosing jobs and constructing careers, the work world of the 21st century provokes feelings of anxiety and insecurity” (Savickas, 2012, p. 13). “Steeped in and influenced by politics and economics, both national and international, career development is the individual’s catalyst for competing and living successfully in today’s and tomorrow’s world—a world responding to an emerging workplace shaped by globalization and technology enhancements and a multitude of choices.” (Feller & Whichard, 2005, p. 14). “Innovation and creativity cumulatively produce change faster than higher education and students can often adapt. Complexity, information overload, and infinite choices demand focus, reflection, and student resilience. Greater personal responsibility is required of students aiming to be a positive force in enriching people, communities, and the environment.” (Feller & O’Bruba, 2009, p. 20) “Academic advisors must be in tune with the remarkable changes unfolding in today’s work world. The workplace today is undergoing significant changes just as earth-shattering as those of the Industrial Revolution. . . . Advising is a key factor in helping students use their college years preparing to become educated persons and productive workers. It is important to anticipate how society, higher education, and our future students might change” (Gordon, 2006, p. 113). Topics for the Session • • • • • • Career adaptability Planned happenstance and chance Career flow and hope Career decision-making and problem solving Case study and activities Advising questions to enhance preparation Career Adaptability Career adaptability “denotes an individual’s readiness and resources for coping with current and imminent vocational developmental tasks, occupational transitions, and personal traumas” (Savickas, 2005, p. 51). Four Dimensions of Career Adaptability In career construction theory, adaptive individuals are conceptualized as: • Becoming concerned about their future as a worker. • Increasing personal control over their vocational future. • Displaying curiosity by exploring possible selves and future scenarios. • Strengthening the confidence to pursue their aspirations. (Savickas, 2005, p. 52) Career Concern—“Career concern means essentially a future orientation, a sense that it is important to prepare for tomorrow. Attitudes of planfulness and optimism foster a sense of concern because they dispose individuals to become aware of the vocational tasks and occupational transitions to be faced and choices to be made in the imminent and distant future.” (p. 52) Question-Do I have a future? Problem-Indifference Attitudes & Beliefs-Planful Competence-Planning Coping Behaviors-Aware, involved, preparatory Relationship-Dependent Career Intervention-Orientation exercises (Savickas, 2005, p. 53) Career Control—“Career control means that individuals feel and believe that they are responsible for constructing their careers. While they may consult significant others, they own their career. . . . Attitudes of assertiveness and decisiveness dispose selfgoverning individuals to engage the vocational development tasks and negotiate occupational transitions, rather than procrastinate and avoid them.” (p. 54) Question-Who owns my future? Problem-Indecision Attitudes & Beliefs-Decisive Competence-Decision making Coping Behaviors-Assertive, disciplined, willful Relationship-Independent Career Intervention-Decisional training (Savickas, 2005, p. 53) Career Curiosity—“Career curiosity refers to inquisitiveness about and exploration of the fit between self and the work world. When acted on, curiosity produces a fund of knowledge with which to make choices that fit self to situation. . . . Attitudes of inquisitiveness dispose individuals to scan the environment to learn more about self and situations.” (p. 55) Question-What do I want to do with my future? Problem-Unrealism Attitudes & Beliefs-Inquisitive Competence-Exploring Coping Behaviors-Experimenting, risk-taking, inquiring Relationship-Interdependent Career Intervention-Information-seeking activities (Savickas, 2005, p. 53) Career Confidence—“In career construction theory, confidence denotes feelings of self-efficacy concerning the individual’s ability to successfully execute a course of action needed to make and implement suitable educational and vocational choices. . . . Confidence arises from solving problems encountered in daily activities such as household chores, schoolwork, and hobbies.” (p. 56) Question-Can I do it? Problem-Inhibition Attitudes & Beliefs-Efficacious Competence-Problem solving Coping Behaviors-Persistent, striving, industrious Relationship-Equal Career Intervention-Self-esteem building (Savickas, 2005, p. 53) Skills to Recognize, Create, and Use Chance in One’s Career • Curiosity: exploring new learning opportunities • Persistence: exerting effort despite setbacks • Flexibility: changing attitudes and circumstances • Optimism: viewing new opportunities as possible and attainable • Risk taking: taking action in the face of uncertain outcomes (Mitchell, Levin, & Krumboltz, 1999, p. 115) Case of Elaine What are some of the key issues for Elaine and advising her? What recommendations would you make? Career Flow Competencies • Hope • Self-reflection • Self-clarity • Visioning • Goal setting/planning • Implementing/adapting (Niles, Amundson, & Neault, 2011) Assessing Hope Rate each item using the following scale: Definitely False-1; Somewhat False-2; Somewhat True-3; Definitely True-4 • Even when I feel stuck, I believe I can solve the problem. • I believe my future is bright. • I believe I can make a difference. What is your score (divide it by 3)? (Niles et al., 2011, pp. 28-29) Making Career Decisions Cognitive Information Processing • Pyramid of Information Processing • Knowledge domains: Self-knowledge (knowing about myself) and Occupational knowledge (knowing about my options) • Decision-making skills domain: CASVE (knowing how to make decisions) • Executive processing domain (Thinking about my decision making) (Sampson, Reardon, Lenz, & Peterson, 2004) Making Career Decisions The CASVE Cycle • Communication (Knowing I need to make a choice) • Analysis (Understanding myself and my options) • Synthesis (Expanding and narrowing my list of options) • Valuing (Choosing an occupation, program of study, or job) • Execution (Implementing my choice) (Sampson et al., 2004) Goal Setting & Planning Competency Rate each item using the following scale: Definitely False-1; Somewhat False-2; Somewhat True-3; Definitely True-4 • I have long-term goals. • I have several things I want to accomplish soon to achieve my long-term goals. • I have specific plans to achieve my goals. What is your score (divide it by 3)? (Niles et al., 2011, pp. 28-29) Developing a Personal Vision Statement A personal vision statement is “a vivid description of your desired future. It is your personal creation of an image that reflects the future you hope to create. It is your dream for yourself. It should be a statement you find compelling and exciting. It should incorporate the most important aspects of who you are, what you enjoy, the skills you enjoy using, and what you value.” (Niles et al., 2011, p. 127) Critical Ingredients for Career Interventions • Written exercises that encourage clients to write their work and life goals, plans for implementing goals, and occupational analysis • Individual interpretation and feedback—assessment results, career plans, career decision making • Information on the world of work information, including occupational skills and requirements • Modeling of career exploration, decision making, and career implementation • Building support networks for career development and choices • (Brown & Crane, 2000) Questions to Enhance Career Advising for a Changing Workplace How can I help you . . . 1. 2. 3. 4. discover what motivates you . . . what gets the best out of you? become curious and innovative (entrepreneurial thoughts/ideas)? get the people skills needed to work in teams/cooperate/ inspire? get the oral skills you need to persuade/change another’s attitude or opinion? 5. embrace technology (productivity)? 6. gain higher math and science competencies without “saying uncle”? 7. practice business writing (regardless of field, the more responsibility gained the more persuading others in writing using documentation is valued)? 8. see education is a means to develop competencies not an end in itself (lifelong learning)? 9. read, travel, and experiment with new environments to see beyond present boundaries? 10. see that polished effort looks a lot like ability? References Brown, S.D., & Ryan Krane, N.E. (2000). Four (or five) sessions and a cloud of dust: Old assumptions and new observations about career counseling. In S.D. Brown & R.W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (pp. 740-766). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Clifton, D.O., Anderson, E., & Schreiner, L.A. (2006). StrengthsQuest: Discover and develop your strengths in academics, career, and beyond. New York, NY: Gallup Press. Feller, R. (2011, November). Career smarts for the job crisis: Finding success in hard times. Webinar conducted for the National Career Development Association. Feller, R., & O’Bruba, B. (2009). The evolving workplace: Integrating academic and career advising. In K.F. Hughey, D. Burton Nelson, J.K. Damminger, & B. McCalla Wriggings (Eds.), The handbook of career advising (pp. 19-47). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Feller, R., & Whichard, J. (2005). Knowledge nomads and the nervously employed: Workplace change & courageous career choices. Austin, TX: Pro-ed. Gordon, V.N. (2006). Career advising: An academic advisor’s guide. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Hughey, K.F., Burton Nelson, D., Damminger, J.K., & McCalla Wriggins, B. (Eds.) (2009). The handbook of career advising. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Krumboltz, J.D. (2010, November). Action-based tips for successful career counseling. Webinar conducted for the National Career Development Association. Krumboltz, J.D. (2009). The happenstance learning theory. Journal of Career Assessment, 17, 135-154. Mitchell, K.E., Levin, A.S., Krumboltz, J.D. (1999). Planned happenstance: Constructing unexpected career opportunities. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77, 115-124. Niles, S.G., Amundson, N.E., & Neault, R.A. (2011). Career flow: A hope-centered approach to career development. Boston, MA: Pearson. Niles, S.G., & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2013). Career development interventions in the 21 century (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. References Sampson, J.P., Jr., Reardon, R.C., Peterson, G.W., & Lenz, J.G. (2004). Career counseling & services: A cognitive information processing approach. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Savickas, M.L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. In S.D. Brown & R.W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 42-70). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Savickas, M.L. (2012). Life design: A paradigm for career intervention in the 21st century. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90, 13-19. Savickas, M.L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J., Duarte, M.E., Guichard, J., . . . van Vianen, A.E.M. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 239-250. Schreiner, L.A., & Anderson, E. (2005). Strengths-based advising: A new lens for higher education. NACADA Journal, 25(2), 2029.