ATP - Didaktik der Chemie

Report
Glykolyse
- ein Stoffwechselweg zur
schnellen Bereitstellung von
Energie
ATP
NH2
N
N
Säureanhydridbindungen
N
N
O
C H2O
O
P
O
OH
Adenin
O
O
P
O
O
O
P
O
O
OH
Ribose
Adenosin
Triphosphat
2
Glykolyse: Stufe 1
PO32-
6C H 2 O H
Glucose-6-phosphat
α-D-Glucose
O
5
4
HO
1
OH
2
3
OH
OH
Adenosin
P
~~
P
P
3
Glykolyse: Stufe 1 Phosphorylierung
C H2OH
O
α-D-Glucose
OH
HO
OH
OH
ATP
Hexokinase
ADP
C H2O P
O
Glucose-6-phosphat
OH
HO
OH
OH
4
Glykolyse: Stufe 1 Isomerisierung
α-D-Glucose
Glucose6-phosphat
ATP
Fructose6-phosphat
O
H
C
P
OC H2
O
OH
H
H
HO
OH
OH
H
C
OH
HO
C
H
H
C
H
C
O
C
C H2OH
HO
C
H
OH
H
C
OH
OH
H
C
OH
C H2O
C H2O
Glucose-6-phosphat-isomerase
5
Glykolyse: Stufe 1 Phosphorylierung
α-D-Glucose
ATP
O
C
Fructose-6-phosphat
Phosphofructokinase
ATP
C H2OH
HO
C
H
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
C H2O
ADP
O
C
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
C H2O
HO
C
H
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
C H2O
6
Glykolyse: Stufe 2 Aldolspaltung
α-D-Glucose
O
C
ATP
ATP
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
C H2O
HO
C
H
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
C H2O
Aldolase
O
C
HO
C
H
C H2O
C
H
H
Dihydroxyacetonphosphat
DHAP
O
+
H
C
OH
C H 2O
Glycerinaldehyd3-phosphat
GAP
7
Glykolyse: Stufe 2 Aldolspaltung
α-D-Glucose
O
C
ATP
ATP
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
C H2O
HO
C
H
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
C H2O
Aldolase
GAP
O
C
HO
C
H
C H2O
H
H
Dihydroxyacetonphosphat
O
C
Triosephosphatisomerase
H
C
OH
C H 2O
Glycerinaldehyd3-phosphat
8
Glykolyse: Stufe 3 Oxidation u. Phosphorylierung
α-D-Glucose
ATP
ATP
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
O
2
Glycerinaldehyd3-phosphat
H
O
C
H
C
C
OH
H
C H 2O
+
,
NAD Pi
NAD
+
NADH
Glycerinaldehyd3-phosphatDehydrogenase
, Pi
O
2 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerat
C
P
O
O
O
C
H
OH
OH
NADH
O
C
C H 2O
O
GAP
H
O
C
OH
C H 2O
H
C
OH
C H 2O
9
Glykolyse: Stufe 3 Substratkettenphosphorylierung
α-D-Glucose
ATP
ATP
O
21,3-Bisphosphoglycerat
NADH
O
C
H
C
GAP
NADH
ADP
ADP
ATP
ATP
Phosphoglyceratkinase
OH
2
3-Phosphoglycerat
O
O
H
C
C
OH
C H 2O
O
O
C
C
H
O
C
C H 2O
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
O
OH
C H 2O
H
C
OH
C H 2O
10
Glykolyse: Stufe 3 Phosphatverschiebung
α-D-Glucose
ATP
ATP
O
O
2
3-Phosphoglycerat
C
H
C
O
O
C
OH
H
C H 2O
C
OH
C H 2O
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
NADH
ATP
Phosphoglyceratmutase
GAP
NADH
ATP
O
O
2
C
C
2-Phosphoglycerat
H
C
O
O
O
C H 2OH
H
C
O
C H 211O H
Glykolyse: Stufe 3 Wasserabspaltung
α-D-Glucose
ATP
ATP
O
O
2
2-Phosphoglycerat
C
H
C
O
O
C
O
H
C H 2OH
C
O
C H 2OH
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
Enolase
DHAP
NADH
ATP
GAP
H2O
H2O
NADH
ATP
O
O
PEP PEP
2
O
C
O
C
Phosphoenolpyruvat
O
C
C
C
H
O
H
C
H
12
H
Glykolyse: Stufe 3 ATP-Bildung
O
α-D-Glucose
ATP
ATP
2
Phosphoenolpyruvat
O
C
O
O
O
C
C
O
C
C
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
NADH
ATP
H
GAP
NADH
ATP
PEP PEP
Pyruvat Pyruvat
2
H
ADP
ADP
ATP
ATP
Pyruvatkinase
C
H
O
O
O
C
Pyruvat (Enolform)
H
H
OH O
C
OH
C
C
C
C
H
H
13H
Glykolyse: Stufe 3
O
α-D-Glucose
ATP
ATP
2
Pyruvat (Enolform)
O
NADH
ATP
C
OH O
C
OH
C
C
C
C
H
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
O
H
H
H
GAP
NADH
ATP
PEP PEP
ATP
ATP
Pyruvat Pyruvat
O
2
Pyruvat (Ketoform)
O
O
C
O
O
C
O
C
C
C H3
C H3
14
Glykolyse: Stufe 3
α-D-Glucose
ATP
ATP
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
NADH
ATP
GAP
NADH
ATP
O
2
Glycerinaldehyd3-phosphat
H
O
C
H
C
C
OH
H
C H 2O
,
+
, Pi
NAD
NADH
NADH
Pyruvat Pyruvat
H
O
2 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerat
C
OH
C H 2O
O
C
PEP PEP
ATP
ATP
C
+
NAD Pi
O
H
O
C
OH
C H 2O
H
C
OH
C H 2O
15
Glykolyse: Stufe 3
α-D-Glucose
ATP
ATP
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
NADH
GAP
1.
O +1 H
C
H
C
Oxidation
NAD+ NADH
OH
H
C H 2O
2.
NADH
C
OH
+H
C H 2O
H2O
OH
O
OH
C
O
P
O
C
H
O +3 O H
C
O
O
O
C
OH
C H 2O
H
C
OH
C H 2O
16
+
Glykolyse: Stufe 3 – katalytischer Mechanismus
α-D-Glucose
ATP
ATP
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
O
DHAP
H
C
GAP
H
C
R
H
S
OH
C H 2O
Thiohalbacetal
17
Glykolyse: Stufe 3 – katalytischer Mechanismus
α-D-Glucose
ATP
NADH
NAD+
Histidin
CONH2
ATP
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
GAP
H
H
N
R
H
O
C
R
S
ThioesterZwischenprodukt
18
Glykolyse: Stufe 3 – katalytischer Mechanismus
α-D-Glucose
ATP
Histidin
O
ATP
NAD+
OH
P
O
CONH2
O
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
H
H
N
R
O
C
GAP
NADH
R
S
ThioesterZwischenprodukt
19
Glykolyse: Stufe 3 – katalytischer Mechanismus
α-D-Glucose
ATP
NAD+
Histidin
ATP
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
DHAP
GAP
CONH2
O
O
H
NADH
C
C
C
H
O
O
R
H
OH
CRH 2 O
N
S
1,3 Bisphosphoglycerat
20
Glykolyse: Zusammenfassung
C H2OH
α-D-Glucose
O
ATP
OH
HO
ATP
OH
OH
Fructose-1,6bisphosphat
GAP
C
O
NADH
ATP
NADH
ATP
PEP PEP
ATP
ATP
Pyruvat Pyruvat
O
O
C
O
C
C H3
C H3
NAD
C
O
C
O
O
ATP
ATP
O
DHAP
NADH
NADH
OH
C
C H3
+
Lactat
NAD
O
+
O
C
OH
C
C H3
21

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