P - bellevuebiology

Report
• MAKE A NEW ENTRY TITLEDHow Energy is Changed-11/8
• SHORT CHECKUP ON CELLULAR
RESPIRATION AND ENERGY
TRANSFORMATION ON WEDNESDAY
• QUIZ/TEST ON ALL FOOD FOR ANIMALS
STUFF ON TUESDAY AFTER LONG
WEEKEND (11/15)
•CELLULAR
RESPIRATION CLIP
•RELEASING CHEMICAL
ENERGY CLIP
Energy transformations
• Marshmallow burned—thermal (heat)
energy was released
• We said energy was “released” from the
marshmallow—but all the molecules/atoms
could be accounted for—so where in the
marshmallow did the energy come from?
• When the bonds of sugar were broken and
reformed making CO2 and H2O– energy was
released
• So…the energy was in the bonds of the
molecules
• The chemical energy of the sugar molecules
was released as thermal energy
• So, did the C, H, and O atoms turn into
energy when the sugar was burned?
• So where is the sugar?
• In our body, this process is called CELLULAR
RESPIRATION
and happens in CELLS
MORE
stored energy
INPUT
Glucose
OUTPUT
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
LIGHT
ENERGY
Carbon dioxide
LESS
stored energy
MORE
stored energy
INPUT
Glucose
OUTPUT
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
LIGHT
ENERGY
Carbon dioxide
LESS
stored energy
Carbon cycles between carbon dioxide and
glucose as light energy is converted into
chemical energy
INPUT
LIGHT
ENERGY
OUTPUT
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
• WE HAVE TWO MAJOR IDEAS IN THIS UNIT (HOW
WE USE FOOD)
1) GROWTH FROM FOOD—DIGESTION- CIRCULATIONREASSEMBLY, TIME 0-4 ACTIVITY, YOUR TURN HW
2) ENERGY FROM FOOD—
part A CELLULAR RESPIRATION-MATTER IS
CONSERVED WHEN BONDS OF THE FOOD
MOLECULES ARE BROKEN AND ENERGY IS
RELEASED
part B HOW THE CHEMICAL ENERGY IS
CHANGED/TRANSFORMED INTO A TYPE WE CAN
USE TO POWER OUR CELLS (KINETIC)
• In COMBUSTION (sugar burning), we saw
that heat was produced
• Our usual body temp—37 C
• Room temp is about 25 C
• How could you use those two facts as
evidence that we produce thermal
energy?
• What other evidence can you think of
that thermal energy is produced in our
bodies?
• Any similarities between the processes we do and
the burning of the marshmallow?
• CELLULAR RESPIRATION is very similar to the
marshmallow burning—same inputs and outputs
Glucose and O2
CO2 + H2O and ENERGY
• About 60% of the energy released during CELLULAR
RESPIRATION is released as thermal energy.
• The other 40% is available to the cell as usable
energy for the activities that cells perform.
THERMAL
ENERGY
ATP IN A CELL
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
40
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
Building glucose requires energy as an INPUT
Glucose
Carbon dioxide
molecules
Breaking glucose releases energy as an
OUTPUT
60% will be lost right away as heat/thermal and
40% will be converted to a “useful” form of energy--ATP
Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy
SO…WHAT IS ATP?
ATP IS ACTUALLY OUR ENERGY
MOLECULE—NOT FOODEVEN THOUGH WE SAY FOOD IS OUR
ENERGY
WHY ATP?
SODA MACHINE ANALOGY
1 GLUCOSE= 38 ATP’S
• In your body, there is actually a step
between the chemical energy in
glucose being transferred to useful
kinetic energy in a muscle cell.
Instead, your body first uses the
chemical energy in glucose to
build a molecule called ATP
What is ATP?
ATP consists of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups.
Tri (3)
“T”
Adenine
Adenine
Phosphate groups
Ribose
Ribose
ADENOSINE
“A”
PHOSPHATE
“P”
ATP and energy used by cells
• Cells use energy stored in the form
of a molecule called ATP
• All other sources of energy must be
converted and stored in molecules
of ATP to be used by cells
P
ADENOSINE
“A”
PHOSPHATE
“P”
P
Adenosine (A)
1 phosphate (P)
“mono-phosphate”
P
Adenosine (A)
1 phosphate (P)
“mono-phosphate”
P
Adenosine (A)
2 phosphates (P)
“di-phosphate”
P
P
Adenosine (A)
1 phosphate (P)
“mono-phosphate”
P
P
Adenosine (A)
2 phosphates (P)
“di-phosphate”
P
Adenosine (A)
3 phosphates (P)
“tri-phosphate”
P
P
AMP
P
“mono-phosphate”
P
ADP
P
“di-phosphate”
P
P
P
ATP
“tri-phosphate”
Note: you do NOT need to memorize names
of these molecules
The molecular diagrams and names are to
help you visualize the processes and help you
put the concepts into a context
P
ATP
(Adenosine triphosphate)
P
P
Building ATP requires energy as an INPUT
P
P
P
Breaking ATP releases energy as an OUTPUT
P
P
Kinetic energy
P
ATP has more stored energy (potential
energy) than ADP
P
MORE
stored energy
P
P
ATP has more stored energy (potential
energy) than ADP
P
P
LESS
stored energy
P
ATP has more stored energy (potential
energy) than ADP
MORE
LESS
stored energy
stored energy
P
ATP
P
P
P
ADP
P
P
+
P
MORE
stored energy
P
P
P
ATP
INPUT
OUTPUT
ENERGY
FOR CELLULAR
WORK
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
+
ADP
P
P
P
P
LESS
stored energy
ATP cycles between ADP and ATP as chemical energy
is converted into energy for cellular work
P
P
P
INPUT
OUTPUT
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
ENERGY
FOR CELLULAR
WORK
P
P
P
MORE
stored energy
INPUT
Glucose
OUTPUT
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
LIGHT
ENERGY
Carbon dioxide
LESS
stored energy
MORE
stored energy
P
P
P
ATP
INPUT
OUTPUT
ENERGY
FOR CELLULAR
WORK
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
+
ADP
P
P
P
P
LESS
stored energy
Matter cycles as energy is transformed
ATP
Glucose
P P P
Photosynthesis
Glucose
ATP
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
LIGHT
ENERGY
ENERGY
FOR CELLULAR
WORK
P P
Carbon dioxide
CO2
ADP + P
P
ADP + P
Show the transfer of stored chemical
energy in glucose to useful/kinetic energy
in a muscle cell
Glucose
ATP IN MUSCLE
CELL
Chemical
Energy
Chemical
Energy
Muscle
Cell
kinetic
Show the transfer of stored chemical energy in
glucose all the way into the environment as thermal
energy: START WITH GLUCOSE—THEN THE 40%-(TO THERMAL
Glucose
Chemical
Energy
ATP in
Muscle
Cell
Chemical
Energy
Muscle
Cell
Kinetic
Muscle/
Environment
Thermal
• PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER: ENERGY IN CELLULAR
RESPIRATION
1)How much energy was immediately released to
the environment as thermal energy? ______%
60
2)How much energy was transformed into useful
40
energy (ATP)? ______%
3) Where was the energy stored to begin with?
In the BONDS of GLUCOSE
4) Where does all the energy ultimately end up?
In the ENVIRONMENT as HEAT
Thermal
Environment
Glucose
Chemical
Energy
ATP in
Muscle Cell
Chemical
Energy
Muscle
Cell
Kinetic
Muscle/
Environment
Thermal

similar documents